The Classics in the Middle Ages: Transmission and Influence

I. Bibliographies

II. Surveys and Collections of Essays

III. Manuscript Transmission of Classical Authors

IV. Medieval Commentaries on Classical Authors

IV. Transmission, Translation, and Influence of Greek Literature in the West

I. Bibliographies

Classical studies:

Oxford Bibliographies–Classics

David M. SchapsHandbook for Classical Research (New York, 2011).

Brigitte Gullath, Wie finde Ich altertumswissenschaftliche Literatur? (Berlin, 1992).

F. W. Jenkins, Classical Studies: A Guide to the Reference Literature, 2nd ed. (Westport CT, 2006).

Graham Whitaker, A Bibliographical Guide to Classical Studies, 5 vols. (Hildesheim, 1997-2007).

M. Van der Poel, Bibliographia Latina Selecta

Tools of the Trade: Bibliographies for Roman Studies

Eleanor DickeAncient Greek Scholarship: A Guide to Finding, Reading, and Understanding Scholia, Commentaries, Lexica, and Grammatical Treatises, from Their Beginnings to the Byzantine Period (Oxford, 2006).

KIRKE – Katalog der Internetressourcen für die Klassische Philologie

Reception and Influence of Classical Literature in the Middle Ages:

Michael Herren, “Classics in the Middle Ages,” Oxford Bibliographies

Richard Tarrant, “Transmission of Greek and Latin Literature,” Oxford Bibliographies

Brill’s New Pauly Supplement 5: The Reception of Classical Literature, ed. Christine Walde (Leiden, 2012).

Pierre Petitmengin and Birger Munk Olsen, “Bibliographie de la reception de la littérature classique du IXe au XVe siècle,” in The Classical Tradition in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, ed. Claudio Leonardi and Birger Munk Olsen, Biblioteca di Medioevo Latino 15 (Spoleto, 1995), pp. 199-274.

Karsten Friis-Jensen, Birger Munk Olsen, and Ole L. Smith, “Bibliography of Classical Scholarship in the Middle Ages and the Early Renaissance (9th to 15th Centuries),” in Medieval and Renaissance Scholarship, ed. Nicholas Mann and Birger Munk Olsen, Mittellateinische Studien und Texte 21 (Leiden, 1997), pp. 197-252. 

Viktor Pöschl, Bibliographie zur antiken Bildersprache (Heidelberg, 1964).  Has two main sections:  Literatur and Bilder (Images). The section on Images is divided into a main section on Gestalten und Personifkationen (Figures and Personifications: including both biblical and mythological); and Appendices on Lateinische Ausdrücke (Latin Expressions) and Griechische Ausdrücke (Greek Experessions). To use the main section you need to know the German word for a given image or vehicle of a metaphor.

James E. G. ZetzelCritics, Compilers, and Commentators: An Introduction to Roman Philology, 200 B.C.E – 800 C.E (Oxford, 2018). Includes a Bibliographic Guide” covering Dictionaries and Encyclopedias; Commentaries (on ten classical authors); Grammars and Other Forms of Erudition; and Early Medieval Grammars.

The Year’s Work in Modern Language Studies (1931- ).

Medioevo Latino. Consult the section “Fortleben,” or search the Mirabile database.

L’année philologique (1924/26- )

II. Surveys and Collections of Essays

Jan Ziolkowski, “The Middle Ages,” in A Companion to the Classical Tradition, ed. Craig Kallendorf (Malden MA, 2007), pp. 17-29. 

The Cambridge History of Literary Criticism, vol. 2: The Middle Ages, ed. Alastair Minnis and Ian Johnson (Cambridge, 2005). Part II, The Study of Classical Authors: Winthrop Wetherbee, “From Late Antiquity to the Twelfth Century,” pp. 99-144; Vincent Gillespie, “From the Twelfth Century to c. 1450,” pp. 145-238. 

John Edwin Sandys, A History of Classical Scholarship, I: From the Sixth Century B. C. to the End of the Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1921). Chronological survey with chapter on survival of Latin classics. Dated but still useful.

Birger Munk Olsen, La réception de la littérature classique au moyen âge (IXe-XIIe siècle): choix d’articles publié par des collègues à l’occasion de son soixantième anniversaire (Copenhagen, 1995).

Gilbert Highet, The Classical Tradition: Greek and Roman Influences on Western Literature (Oxford, 1949).

R. R. Bolgar, The Classical Heritage and its Beneficiaries from the Carolingian Age to the End of the Renaissance (Cambridge, 1954).

La cultura antica nell’Occidente latino dal VII all’XI secolo, 2 vols., Settimane di studio del Centro italiano di studi sull’alto medioevo 22 (Spoleto, 1975).

Medieval and Renaissance Scholarship: Proceedings of the Second European Science Foundation Workshop on the Classical Tradition in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance (London, Warburg Institute, 27-28 November 1992), ed. Nicholas Mann and Birger Munk Olsen (Leiden, 1997). 

The Classical Tradition in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance: Proceedings of the First European Science Foundation Workshop on “The Reception of Classical Texts” (Florence, Certosa del Galluzzo, 26-27 June 1992), ed. Claudio Leonardi and Birger Munk Olsen (Spoleto, 1995). Includes a “Bibliographie de la réception de la littérature classique du IXe au XVe siècle” by Pierre Petitmengin and Birger Munk Olsen

Marjorie Curry Woods, Weeping for Dido: The Classics in the Medieval Classroom (Princeton, 2015).

The Classics in the Medieval and Renaissance Classroom: The Role of Ancient Texts in the Arts Curriculum as Revealed by Surviving Manuscripts and Early Printed Books, ed. Juanita Feros Ruys, John O. Ward, and Melanie Heyworth,Disputatio 20 (Turnhout, 2013). 

Willi Erzgräber, Kontinuität und Transformation der Antike im Mittelalter (Sigmaringen, 1989).

Jan Ziolkowski, Nota Bene: Reading Classics and Writing Songs in the Early Middle AgesPublications of The Journal of Medieval Latin 7 (Turnhout, 2007).

The Classics in the Middle Ages, ed. A. S. Bernardo and S. Levin, Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies 69 (Binghamton, NY, 1990).

Medieval Antiquity, ed. Andries Welkenhuysen, Herman Braet, and Werner Verbeke, Mediaevalia Lovaniensia, Ser. 1, 24 (Leuven, 1995).

Receptions of Antiquity, Constructions of Gender in European Art, 1300-1600ed. Marice Rose and Alison C. Poe, Metaforms 3 (Leiden, 2015).

H. Hagendahl, Augustine and the Latin Classics (Göteborg, 1967).

The Oxford History of Classical Reception in English Literature, Vol. 1 (800-1558), ed. Rita Copeland (Oxford, 2016).

Classical Literature and Learning in Medieval Ireland, ed. Ralph O’Connor (Cambridge, 2014). 

For older references see Crosby et al., Medieval Studies: A Bibliographical Guide, pp. 643-49.


Australasian Classical Reception Studies Network

Classical Reception Studies Network


Classical Receptions Journal

International Journal of the Classical Tradition

III. Manuscript Transmission of Classical Authors

Texts and Transmission: A Survey of the Latin Classics , ed. L. D. Reynolds (Oxford, 1983).

Herbert Hunger, Geschichte der Textüberlieferung der antiken und mittelalterlichen Literatur, 2 vols. (Zurich, 1961-64).

François Dolbeau and Pierre Petitmengin, Indices librorum: Catalogues anciens et moderns de manuscrits médiévaux en écriture latine, 2 vols.: 1: Sept ans de bibliographie (1977-1983) (Paris, 1987); 2: Sept ans de bibliographie (1983-1990) et compléments pour 1977-1983) (Paris, 1995). The section “auteurs et thèmes” includes classical authors.

Manuscripts of the Latin Classics, ed. Erik Kwakkel (Leiden, 2015).

Medieval Manuscripts of the Latin Classics: Production and Use, ed. Claudine A. Chavannes-Mazel and Margaret Smith (Los Altos Hills CA, 1996).

L. D. Reynolds and N. G. Wilson, Scribes and Scholars: A Guide to the Transmission of Greek and Latin Literature, 3rd ed. (Oxford, 1991).

Franz Brunhölzl, “Zu den sogenannten codices archetypical der römischen Literatur,” in Festschrift Bernhard Bischoff zu seinem 65 Geburtstag, ed. Johanne Authenrieth and Franz Brunhölzl (Stuttgart, 1971), pp. 16-31.

Franz Brunhölzl, “Ein neues Bild der älteren Überlieferung der römischen Literatur,” in De litteris, manuscriptis, inscriptionibus … Festschrift zum 65. Geburtstag von Walter Koch, ed. Theo Kölzer et al. (Vienna, 2007), pp. 397-408.

Bernhard Bischoff, “Palaeography and the Transmission of Classical Texts in the Early Middle Ages”; “Benedictine Monasteries and the Survival of Classical Literature,” in Manuscripts and Libraries in the Age of Charlemagne, trans. Michael Gorman (Cambridge, 1994), pp. 115-60. 

Bernhard Bischoff, “Hardoard und die Klassikerhandschriften aus Corbie,” Mittelalterliche Studien: Ausgewählte aufsätze zur Schriftkunde und Literaturgeschichte, 3 vols. (Stuttgart, 1966-81), 1:49-62. 

Günter Glauche, Schullektüre im Mittelalter. Entstehung und Wandlungen des Lektürekanons bis 1200 nach den Quellen dargestellt (Munich, 1970).

Birger Munk Olsen, “Chronique des manuscrits classiques latins (IXe-XIIe siecles),” Revue d’histoire des textes 21 (1991), 37-76; 24 (1994), 199-249; 30 (2000), 123-88; 32 (2002), 73-106

Birger Munk Olsen, “Les classiques latins dans les florilèges médiévaux antérieurs au XIIIe siècle,” Revue d’histoire des textes 9 (1979), 47-121. 

Birger Munk Olsen, L’étude des auteurs classiques latins aux XIe et XIIe siècles, 4 vols. (Paris, 1982-2014).

Birger Munk Olsen, “Les florilèges d’auteurs classiques,” in Les genres littéraires dans les sources théologiques et philosophiques médiévales. Définition, critique et exploitation. Actes du Colloque international de Louvain-la-Neuve, 25-27 mai 1981 (Louvain, 1982), pp. 151-64.

Yves-François Riou, “Chronologie et provenance des manuscrits classiques latins neumés,” Revue d’histoire des textes 21 (1991), 77-113.

Formative Stages of Classical Traditions: Latin Texts from Antiquity to the Renaissance, ed. Oronzo Pecere and Michael D. Reeve (Spoleto, 1995).

Max Manitius, Handschriften antiker autoren in mittelalterlichen Bibliotekskatalogen (Leipzig, 1935).

Hilda Buttenwieser, “Popular Authors of the Middle Ages: The Testimony of the Manuscripts,” Speculum 17 (1942), 50-55.

Robert Black, “The Rise and Fall of the Latin Classics: the Evidence of Schoolbook Production in Twelfth- and Thirteenth-Century Italy,” Ævum 91 (20170), 411-64.

R. Sabbadini, Le scoperte dei codici latini e greci nel secoli XIV e XV, ed. E. Garin (Florence 1967).

Elisabeth Pellegrin et al., Les manuscrits classiques latins de la Bibliothèque Vaticane, 4 vols. (Paris, 1975-91). 

Lisardo Rubio Fernández, Catálogo de los manuscritos clásicos latinos existentes en España (Madrid, 1984).

Collete Jeudy and Yves-François Riou, Les manuscrits classiques latins des bibliothèques de France (Paris, 1989- ).

Italy and the Classical Tradition: Language, Thought and Poetry 1300-1600, ed. Carlo Caruso and A. Laird (2009).

T. J. Brown, “An Historical Introduction to the Use of Classical Latin Authors in the British Isles from the Fifth to the Eleventh Century,” Settimane di studio del Centro italiano di studi sull’alto Medioevo 22 (1974), pp. 237-99.

David N. Dumville, The Early Medieval Insular Churches and the Preservation of Roman Literature: Towards a Historical and Palaeographical Reëvaluation, Anglo-Saxon, Norse & Celtic Manuscript Studies 3 (

James G. Clark, “Monastic Manuscripts and the Transmission of the Classics in Late Medieval England,” in Vehicles of Transmission, Translation, and Transformation in Medieval Textual Culture, ed. Robert Wisnovsky et al. (Turnhout, 2011), pp. 335-52. 

Nemerkényi Előd, “Latin Classics in Medieval Libraries: Hungary in the Eleventh Century,” Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 43 (2003), 243-56.

Revue d’histoire des textes (1952- ).

IV. Medieval Commentaries on Classical Authors

The basic work is Paul Oskar Kristeller, ed., Catalogus translationum et commentariorum: Mediaeval and Renaissance Latin Translations and Commentaries. Annotated Lists and Guide, 8 vols. Washington, D. C., 1960- ). 

The bibliographies by Petitmengin and Munk Olsen and by Friis-Jensen and Olsen (see section I above) list both Greek and Latin commentaries on classical authors. See also Kaske, Medieval Christian Literary Imagery, pp. 116-31, for medieval commentaries on Virgil, Ovid, Lucan, Statius, Juvenal, Claudian, Martianus Capella, and Plato (Timaeus).

James E. G. ZetzelCritics, Compilers, and Commentators: An Introduction to Roman Philology, 200 B.C.E – 800 C.E (Oxford, 2018). Chap. 11, “Commentaries,” provides a bibliographical guide to Roman and early medieval commentaries on Terence, Cicero, Virgil, Horace, Ovid, Germanicus, Persius, Lucan, Statius, and Juvenal.

E. A. Quain, “The Medieval accessus ad auctores,” Traditio 3 (1945), 215-64. 

Birger Munk Olsen, “Accessus to Classical Poets in the Twelfth Century,” in The Classics in the Medieval and Renaissance Classroom, ed. Ruys et al., pp. 131-43.

Alastair Minnis and A. B. Scott, trans., Medieval Literary Theory and Criticism, c. 1100-1375: The Commentary Tradition, rev. ed. (Oxford, 1992). 

Some Major Latin Authors:

For particular authors begin with the relevant chapter in Texts and Transmission: A Survey of the Latin Classics, ed. L. D. Reynolds (Oxford, 1983).  Follow up by consulting Dolbeau and Petitmengin, Indices librorum and the section “Fortleben” in Medioevo Latino (or simply search the Classical author or text in the Mirabile database).  Below only a few essential references for select major authors can be given. For fuller listings and additional authors see Herren, “Classics in the Middle Ages,” Oxford Bibliographies



Karsten Friis-Jensen, The Medieval Horace, ed. K. M. Fredborg et al. (Rome, 2015).

Enciclopedia Oraziana, 3 vols., ed. Scevola Mariotti et al. (Rome, 1996-98).

A Companion to Horace, ed. Gregson Davis (Malden MA, 2010). See “Part IV: Reception of Horace.”


Catalogus Translationum entry; Addenda et Corrigenda

Marielle de Franchis, “Livian Manuscript Tradition,” in A Companion to Livy, ed. Bernard Mineo (Malden MA, 2015), pp. 3-23.

Pierre Maréchaux, “The Transmission of Livy from the End of the Roman Empire to the Beginning of the Seventeenth Century: Distortion or Discovery, a Story of Corruption,” in A Companion to Livy, ed. Mineo, pp. 437-52.


Peter van Moos, “Lucain au Moyen Âge,” in von Moos, Entre Histoire et Littérature: Communication et culture et Moyen Âge, Millennio Medievale 58 (Florence, 2005), pp. 89-204.

Christine Walde, Lucans bellum civile: Studien zum Spektrum seiner Rezeption von der Antike bis ins 19. Jahrhundert (Trier, 2009).

E. M. Sanford, “Quotations from Lucan in Medieval Latin Authors,” American Journal of Philology 55 (1934), 1-19.

Harold C. Gotoff, The Transmission of the Text of Lucan in the Ninth Century (Cambridge MA, 1971).


Catalogus Translationum entry; Addenda et Corrigenda

David Butterfield, The Early Textual History of Lucretius’ De Rerum Natura (Cambridge, 2013).

Franz Brunhölzl, “Zur Überlieferung des Lukrez,” Hermes 90 (1962), 97-104.

Michael Reeve, “Lucretius in the Middle Ages and Early Renaissance: Transmission and Scholarship,” in The Cambridge Companion to Lucretius, ed. Stuart Gillespie and Philip Hardie (Cambridge, 2010), pp. 205-13. 

David Ganz, “Lucretius in the Carolingian Age: The Leiden Manuscripts and Their Carolingian Readers,” in Medieval Manuscripts of the Latin Classics: Production and Use, ed. Claudine A. Chavannes-Mazel and Margaret Smith (Los Altos Hills CA, 1996), pp. 91-102.


Bruce Barker-Benfield, “The Manuscripts of Macrobius’ Commentary on the Somnium Scipionis,” 2 vols. (unpubl. PhD diss., Oxford University, 1975).

Albrecht Hüttig, Macrobius im Mittelalter: Ein Beitrag zur Rezeptionsgeschichte der Commentarii in Somnium Scipionis, Freiburger Beiträge zur mittelalterlichen Geschichte 2 (Frankfurt a.M., 1990).

Birger Munk Olsen, “Quelques aspects de la diffusion du Somnium Scipionis de Cicéron au moyen âge,” Studia Romana in honoree Petri Karup septuagenarii, ed. Karen Ascani et al. (Odense, 1976), pp. 146-53.

Irene CaiazzoLectures médiévales de Macrobe: Les Glosae Colonienses super Macrobium, Études de philosophie médiévale 83 (Paris, 2002).

A. M. Peden, “Macrobius and Medieval Dream Literature,” Medium Ævum 54 (1985), 59-73.

Mattaeus Schedler, Die Philosophie des Macrobius und ihr Einfluss auf die Wissenschaft des christlichen Mittelalters, Beiträge zur Geschichte der Philosophie des Mittelalters 13/1 (Münster, 1916).

Martianus Capella:

Catalogus Translationum entry; Addenda et Corrigenda

Carolingian Scholarship | Glosses on Martianus Capella

Claudio Leonardi, “I codici di Marziano Capella,” Aevum 33 (1959), 434-89.

Carolingian Scholarship and Martianus Capella: Ninth-Century Commentary Traditions on “De nuptiis’”in Context, ed. Mariken Teuwen and Sinéad O’Sullivan (Turnhout, 2011).

Mariken Teeuwen, Harmony and the Music of the Spheres: The “‘Ars Musica” in Ninth-Century Commentaries on Martianus Capella, Mittellateinische Studien und Texte 30 (Leiden, 2002), pp. 27-56. 

Mariken Teeuwen, “The Pursuit of Secular Learning: The Oldest Commentary Tradition on Martianus Capella,” The Journal of Medieval Latin 18 (2008), 36-51.

Glossae aevi Carolini in libros I-II Martiani Capellae De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii, ed. Sinéad O’Sullivan, CCCM 237 (Turnhout, 2010). 


Frank Coulson and Bruno Roy, Incipitarium Ovidianum: A Finding Guide for Texts Related to the Study of Ovid in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, Publications of The Journal of Medieval Latin 3 (Turnhout, 2000).

James Clark, Frank T. Coulson, and Kathryn L. McKinley, Ovid in the Middle Ages (Cambridge, 2011).

Birger Munk Olsen, “Ovide au moyen âge (du IXe au XIIe siècle),” in Munk OlsenLa réception de la littérature classique au moyen âge (IXe-XIIe siècle), pp. 71-94.

A Handbook to the Reception of Ovid, ed. John F. Miller and Carole E. Newlands (Malden MA, 2014). Includes seven essays on Ovid’s late-antique and medieval reception.

Ralph Hexter, Ovid and Medieval Schooling: Studies in Medieval School Commentaries on Ovid’s Ars amatoria, Epistulae ex Ponto, and Epistulae Heroidum (Munich, 1986).

Franco Munari, Ovid im Mittelalter (Zurich, 1960).

Amanda Gerber, Medieval Ovid: Frame Narrative and Political Allegory (New York 2015).

Marylène Possamaï-Pérez, L’Ovide moralisé: essai d’interprétation (Paris, 2006).


Catalogus Translationum 8:183-326; Addenda and Corrigenda


Virgil in Late Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance: An Online Bibliography.

The Virgil Encyclopedia, 3 vols., ed. Richard F. Thomas and Jan Ziolkowski (Malden MA, 2013).

The Virgilian Tradition: The First Fifteen Hundred Years, ed. Jan Ziolkowski and Michael C. J. Putnam (New Haven, 2008).

Lectures médiévales de Virgile, Actes du colloque de Rome (25-28 octobre 1982) (Rome, 1985).

Pierre Courcelle and Jeanne Courcelle, Lecteurs païens et lecteurs chrétiens de l’Éneide, 2 vols. Mémoires de l’Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres, nouvelle série 4 (Paris, 1984).

Domenico Comparetti, Virgil in the Middle Ages, trans. E. F. M. Benecke (Princeton, 1997). 1895 ed.

Christopher Baswell, Virgil in Medieval England: Figuring The Aeneid from the Twelfth Century to Chaucer (Cambridge, 1995).

Marilynn Desmond, Reading Dido: Gender, Textuality and the Medieval Aeneid (London, 1994).


See Kaske, Medieval Christian Literary Imagery. 


Bibliographie zum Nachleben des antiken Mythos

A Handbook to the Reception of Classical Mythology, ed. Vanda Zajko and Helena Hoyle (New York, 2017).

The Reception of Myth and Mythology, ed. Maria Moog-Grünewald, Brill’s New Pauly Supplements 4 (Leiden, 2010).

Jane Chance, The Mythographic Art: Classical Fable and the Rise of the Vernacular in Early France and England (Gainesville, 1990).

Jane Chance, Medieval Mythography from Roman North Africa to the School of Chartres, A.D. 433-1177 (Gainesville, 1994).

Timothy Gantz, Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources (Baltimore, MD, 1993).

Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae (LIMC) (Zurich and Munich, 1981–).

Jane Davidson ReidThe Oxford Guide to Classical Mythology in the Arts, 1300-1990s 2 vols. (Oxford, 1993). Alphabetical by subject and name; lists Classical sources, followed by chronological list of allusions in primary sources with bibliographical references. Index of artists includes authors.

Lexikon der antiken Gestalten in den deutschen Texten des Mittelalters, ed. Manfred Kern and Alfred Ebenbauer in collaboration with Silvia Krämer-Seifert (Berlin, 2003).  Includes a survey, “Antikerezeption im Mittelalter und in der deutschen Literatur” as well as a bibliography; indices of entries by authors and works and variants of names.

V. Transmission, Translation, and Influence of Greek Literature in the West

Charles H. Lohr, Traditio Classicorum: The Fortuna of Classical Authors to the Year 1650

Transmission of Classical Literature. Warburg Institute Library thematic catalogue, wide-ranging.

Greek Studies in XVth Century Europe

For Latin translations of Greek authors, see:

Kristeller, Catalogus translationum.

J. T. Muckle, “Greek Works Translated Directly into Latin before 1350,” Mediaeval Studies 4 (1942), 33-42; 5 (1943), 102-14

See also Berlioz, Identifier sources et citations, pp. 47-75; Friis-Jensen and Olsen, pp. 249-59.

Transmission et réception des Pères grecs dans l’Occident, de l’Antiquité tardive à la Renaissance. Entre philologie, herméneutique et théologie. Actes du colloque international organisé du 26 au 28 novembre 2014 à l’Université de Strasbourg, Collection des Études Augustiniennes, Série Moyen Âge et Temps modernes, 53, ed. Emanuela Prinzivalli, Françoise Vinel, and Michele Cutino (Turnhout, 2016). 

An Odyssey of Knowledge: Medieval and Manuscripts and Early Printed Books from the National Library of Medicine

Nobilitas: DB Anima (parallel-column texts of four medieval Latin translations of Aristotle’s De anima).

For the transmission of Greek texts in the Latin Middle Ages:

Albert Siegmund, Die Überlieferung der griechischen christlichen Literatur in der lateinischen Kirche bis zum zwölften Jahrhundert (Munich-Pasing, 1949).

For the use of Greek in Latin texts:

Aaron Pelttari, “Approaches to the Writing of Greek in Late Antique Latin Texts,” Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies 51 (2011), 461-82.

For Latin works falsely attributed to Greek authors:

Charles B. Schmitt and Dilwyn Knox, Pseudo-Aristoteles Latinus. A Guide to Latin Works Falsely Attributed to Aristotle before 1500, Warburg Institute Surveys and Texts 12 (London, 1985).

General Studies:

Bernhard Bischoff, “Das griechische Element in der abendländischen Bildung des Mittelalters,” in Bischoff, Mittelalterliche Studien, 3 vols. (Stuttgart, 1966-81) II, 246-75. 

Pierre Courcelle, Late Latin Writers and Their Greek Sources (Cambridge, MA, 1969).

Walter Berschin, Greek Letters and the Latin Middle Ages: From Jerome to Nicholas of Cusa, rev. ed. trans. J. C. Frakes (Washington, D.C., 1988).

The Sacred Nectar of the Greeks: The Study of Greek in the West in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Michael W. Herren, King’s College London Medieval Studies 2 (London, 1988).

Bernice M. Kaczynski, Greek in the Carolingian Age: The St. Gall Manuscripts (Boston, 1988).

For translations of classical texts into medieval vernaculars, see “The Translations of Greek and Roman Classics before 1600,” Appendix I in Bolgar, The Classical Heritage, pp. 506-41.

On Hebrew:

Matthias Thiel, “Grundlagen und Gestalt der Hebräischkenntnisse des frühen Mittelalters,” Studi Medievali (1969), 4-212. 

Gilbert Dahan, “Lexiques hébreu/latin? Les receuils d’interprétations des noms hébraiques,” in Les manuscrits des lexiques et glossaires de l’antiquité tardive à la fin du moyen âge, Textes et études du moyen âge 4 (Louvain-la-Neuve, 1996), pp. 480-526.

Gilbert DahanLes intellectuels chrétiens et les juifs au moyen âge (Paris, 2007).

Hebrew Scholarship in the Medieval World, ed. Nicholas de Lange (Cambridge, 2001).

Wilhelm Bacher, Die Anfänge der hebräischen Grammatik (1895), together with Die hebräische Sprachwissenschaft vom 10. bis zum 16. Jahrhundert (1892), Studies in the History of the Language Sciences 4 (Amsterdam, 1974), repr. with supplements.

Moritz Steinschneider, The Hebrew Translations of the Middle Ages and the Jews as Transmitters, trans. and ed. Charles H. Manekin, Y. Tzvi Langermann, and Hans Hinrich Biesterfeldt, Amsterdam Studies in Jewish Philosophy 16 (Dordrecht, 2013).

Charles Singer, “Hebrew Scholarship in the Middle Ages among Latin Christians,” in The Legacy of Israel, ed. E. R. Bevan and Charles Singer (Oxford, 1928), pp. 283-314.

Raphael Loewe, “The Medieval Christian Hebraists of England. Herbert of Bosham and Earlier Scholars,” Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society of England 17 (1951/52), 245-49.

On Arabic:

A Digital Corpus for Graeco-Arabic Studies

Daniel G. König, “Übersetzungen und Wissenstransfer. Zu einem Aspekt der Beziehungen zwischen lateinisch-christlicher und arabisch-islamischer Welt,” Trivium 8 (2011).

Wissen über Grenzen. Arabisches Wissen und lateinisches Mittelalter, ed. Andreas Speer and Lydia Wegener (Berlin, 2006).

Hans-Peter HebelArabische Kultur und europäisches Mittelalter (Munich, 2013).

F. Wüstenfeld, “Die Übersetzungen arabischer Werke ins lateinische seit dem XI. Jahrhundert,” Abhandlungen der königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften in Göttingen 22 (1877).

Wissen über Grenzen: Arabisches Wissen und lateinisches Mittelalter, ed. Andreas Speer und Lydia Wegen (Berlin, 2006). 

Aspects of the Islamic Influence on Science and Learning in the Christian West (12th-13th Century). Includes a bibliography of over 100 items.

The Reception of Islamic Philosophy in the Latin West: Texts and Studies, ed. Fuat Sezgin, Carl Ehrig-Eggert, and Eckhard Neubauer (Frankfurt, 2007).

The Introduction of Arabic Philosophy into Europe, ed. Charles E. Butterworth and Blake Andrée Kessel (Leiden, 1998).

Charles Burnett, The Arabic-Latin Translators (list of his publications).

Charles D. Wright:

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