Medieval Liturgy

I. Bibliographies and Repertories

II. General Reference Works

III. Collections of Essays

IV. Journals and Organizations

V. Major Collections of Sources

VI. Liturgical Latin and Liturgical Formulae

VII. Liturgical Books

VIII. Calendars and the Ecclesiastical Year

Major Feasts of the Temporale [under construction 2019]

IX. The Mass, Sacramentaries, and Missals

X. Ordines, Pontificals, Rituals, Customaries, Ordinaries, Processionals, Ceremonials

XI. The Office and the Breviary

XII. Some Regional Liturgies

XIII. Liturgies of the Religious Orders

XIV. Jewish Liturgy

XV. The Bible in the Liturgy

XVI. Hymns

XVII. Liturgical Chant

XVIII. Liturgical Commentary

XIX. Liturgical Themes and Themes in the Liturgy

XX. Liturgical Furnishings and Vestment; Colors; Gestures

XXI. The Liturgy and Church Architecture

XXII. The Sacraments

XXIII.  Other Rites

I. Bibliographies and Repertories

Note:  Many of the resources in the bibliography on Medieval Christianity and Ecclesiastical Sources will be relevant, but are not repeated here unless they are specifically dedicated to the liturgy.

Matthew Cheung Salisbury and Andrew Hughes, “Liturgy,” Oxford Bibliographies.

Richard W. Pfaff, Medieval Latin Liturgy, Toronto Medieval Bibliographies (Toronto, 1982).

Alcuinus: Online Liturgical Bibliography

Acolit: autori cattolici e opere liturgiche: una lista di autorità, vol. 3: Opere liturgiche / Liturgical Works, ed. Fausto Ruggeri et al. (Milan, 2004). 

Angelus Häussling, Martin Klöckener, and Burkhard Neunheuserm “Der Gottesdienst der Kirche: Texte, Quellen, Studien,” Archiv für Liturgiewissenschaft 26 (1984), 52-99; 32 (1990), 55-106; 35/36 (1993-94), 150-234; 42 (2000), 106-202; 43/44 (2001-02), 97-221. 

M. Johnson, “Bibliographical Resources for Liturgics in the Periodic Literature: A Guide for Students,” Studia Liturgica 22 (1992), 237-44. 

M. Johnson, Bibliographia Liturgica: Bibliographie der Nachschlagwerke für Liturgiewissenschaft, Biblioteca “Ephemerides Liturgicae,” Subsidia 63 (Rome, 1992). 

Th. A. Vismans and Lucas Brinkhoff, Critical Bibliography of Liturgical Literature, trans. R. W. Fitzpatrick and C. Howell (Nijmegen, 1961).  Intended for seminary students, so focused on the modern Roman liturgy, but with references to early Christian and medieval liturgy as well.

Liturgy, by James W. Marchand (WEMSK 27). Resources for the study of the public worship of the Latin West in the Middle Ages (ca. 500 ­to ca. 1500).

The Order of Saint Benedict. Monastic Topics: Liturgy

Ronald L. Grimes, Research in Ritual Studies: A Programmatic Essay and Bibliography (Metuchen NJ, 1985).

Bard Thompson, A Bibliography of Christian Worship (Metuchen NJ, 1988). 

Eligius Dekkers, Clavis Patrum Latinorum, 3rd ed. (Steenbrugge, 1995), pp. 617-74. Lists major liturgical texts of the patristic and early medieval eras. 

Giacomo Baroffio, Repertorium liturgicum.  Alphabetical master list of liturgical texts by incipit.

Renaissance Liturgical Imprints: A Census. Covers books printed to 1601.

N. K. Rasmussen, “Some Bibliographies of Liturgists,” Archiv für Liturgiewissenschaft 11 (1969), 214-18; 15 (1973), 168-71; 20 (1978), 134-39; 25 (1983), 34-44. 

Martin Klöckener, “Bio-bibliographisches Repertorium der Liturgiewissenschaft,” Archiv für Liturgiewissenschaft 36-36 (1993-94), 285-357. ; “Folge 2 für die Jahre 1993-1997: mit Nachträgen aus früheren Jahren,” 41 (1999), 63-120; “Folge 3 für die Jahre 1998-2012: mit Nachträgen aus früheren Jahren,” 56 (2014).

Klaus Gamber: Bibliographie seiner Veröffentlichungen, ed. Christa Schaffer, Schriften der Universitätsbibliothek Eichstätt 53 (Trier, 2002). 

Nancy C. Phillips, “Bibliography of the Writings of Michel Huglo (1949-1992),” Recherches nouvelles sur les tropes liturgiques, ed. Wulf Arlt and Gunilla Björkvall (Stockholm, 1993), 449-60.

Barbara Haggh, “Bibliographie de Michel Huglo,” in Huglo, La théorie de la musique antique et médiévale (Aldershot, 2005), pp. 1-16.

Zoe Saunders and Barbara Haggh-Huglo, “Bibliography of Michel Huglo, 2005–2012, with Earlier Addenda or Corrigenda and Later Posthumous Publications,” Plainsong and Medieval Music 25 (2016), 93-101.

II. General Reference Works

Dictionaries and Encyclopedias:

New SCM Dictionary of Liturgy and Worship, ed. Paul F. Bradshaw (London, 2013). 

Dictionnaire encyclopédique de la liturgie, 2 vols., ed. Domenico Sartore and Achille M. Triacca (Turnhout, 1992-2002). 

Gottesdienst der Kirche: Handbuch der Liturgiewissenschaft, 8 vols., ed. H. B. Meyer et al. (Regensburg, 1983- ).   2/2: Theologie des Gottesdienstes: Gottesdienst im Leben der Christen – Christliche und jüdische Liturgie (2008); 3: Gestalt des Gottesdienstes: Sprachliche und nichtsprachliche Ausdrucksformen (21990); 4: Eucharistie (1989; Registerband 1997); 5: Feiern im Rhythmus der Zeit I: Herrenfeste in Woche und Jahr (1983); 6,1: Feiern im Rhythmus der Zeit II/1: Der Kalender. Feste und Gedenktage der Heiligen (1994); 7,1: Sakramentliche Feiern I: Die Feiern der Eingliederung in die Kirche (1989; Registerband 1999); 7/2: Sakramentliche Feiern I/2: Feiern der Umkehr und Versöhnung. Feier der Krankensalbung (1992); 8: Sakramentliche Feiern II: Ordinationen und Beauftragungen – Riten um Ehe und Familie – Feiern geistlicher Gemeinschaften – Die Sterbe- und Begräbnisliturgie – Die Benediktionen – Der Exorzismus (1984).


Cyrille Vogel, Medieval Liturgy: An Introduction to the Sources, rev. and trans. by William G. Storey and Niels Krogh Rasmussen (Washington, D.C., 1986).  Superb manual with detailed references; focuses on liturgical books and classification of manuscripts, but has only a brief section on the Office.

Aimé-Georges Martimort, The Church at Prayer: An Introduction to the Liturgy, new ed., 4 vols., trans. M. J. O’Connell (Collegeville MN, 1986-88).  Older German trans., 2 vols. (Freiburg, 1963). 

Anscar J. Chupungco, Handbook for Liturgical Studies, 4 vols. (Collegeville MN, 1997-2000). Vol. 1: Introduction to the Liturgy; Vol. 2: Fundamental LiturgyVol. 3: The Eucharist; Vol. 4: Sacraments and Sacramentals; Vol. 5: Liturgical Time and Space.

M. Righetti, Manuale di storia liturgica, 4 vols. (1964-56).  Spanish trans. (Madrid, 1955-56). 

John Harper, The Forms and Orders of the Western Liturgy: From the Tenth to the Eighteenth Century: A Historical Introduction and Guide for Students and Musicians (Oxford, 1991).  Good basic orientation, takes nothing for granted.

Jacques Dubois and J.-L. Lemaître, Sources et méthodes de l’hagiographie médiévale (Paris, 1993).  Chapter 3, “Le culte liturgique des saints,” pp. 59-134, is not restricted to saints in the liturgy but amounts to a comprehensive bibliographical survey of the medieval liturgy.

Histories and Surveys:

Andreas OdenthalLiturgie vom Frühen Mittelalter zum Zeitalter der Konfessionalisierung: Studien zur Geschichte des Gottesdienstes (Tübingen, 2011). 

Arnold Angenendt, Liturgik und Historik: gab es eine organische Liturgie-Entwicklung? (Freiburg, 2001). 

Richard Pfaff, “The Study of Medieval Liturgy,” in Pfaff, Liturgical Calendars, Saints, and Services in Medieval England (Aldershot, 1998), essay I. 

Daniel Sheerin, “The Liturgy,” in Medieval Latin, ed. Mantello and Rigg, pp. 157-82. Includes an excellent select bibliography. 

Eric Palazzo, Liturgie et société au moyen âge (Paris, 2000). 

Eric Palazzo, “Art and Liturgy in the Middle Ages: Survey of Research (1980-2003) and Some Reflections on Method,” Journal of English and Germanic Philology 105 (2006), 170-84. 

Eric Palazzo, “La liturgie de l’Occident médiévale autour de l’an mil. État de la question,” Cahiers de civilisation médiévale 43 (2000), 371-94. 

Margot Fassler, Music in the Medieval West (New York, 2014).  The associated website has very helpful guides to online resources.

Some Classic Older Studies:

Gregory Dix, The Shape of the Liturgy, 2nd ed., repr. with additional notes by P. V. Marshall (New York, 1945). Focuses on the mass liturgy.

Louis Duchesne, Christian Worship: Its Origin and Evolution: A Study of the Latin Liturgy up to the Time of Charlemagne, trans. M. L. McLure, 5th ed. (London, 1919). 

Ludwig Eisenhofer, Grundriss der katholischen Liturgik, 2 vols., 6th ed. rev. Joseph Lechner (Freiburg, 1953). 

Theodor Klauser, A Short History of the Western Liturgy, trans. John Halliburton (London, 1969). 

III. Collections of Essays

Understanding Medieval Liturgy: Essays in Interpretation, ed. Helen Gittos (New York, 2015).  Helen Gittos and Sarah Hamilton, “Introduction”; Helen Gittos, “Researching Rites: Researching the History of Rites”; Frederick S. Paxton, “Researching Rites for the Dying and the Dead”; William T. Flynn, “Approaches to Early Medieval Music and Rites”; Henry Parkes, “Questioning Authority and Tradition: Questioning the Authority of Vogel and Elze’s Pontificale Romano-Germanique”; Matthew Cheung Salisbury, “Rethinking the Uses of Sarum and York: A Historiographical Essay; Sarah Hamilton, “Interpreting Diversity: Excommunication Rites in the 10th and 11th Centuries”; Florence Chave-Mahir, “Medieval Exorcism: Liturgical and Hagiographical Sources”; Mette Birkedal Bruun and Louis I. Hamilton, “Rites for Dedicating Churches; Carolyn Marino Malone, “Texts and Performance: Architecture as Evidence for Liturgical Performance”; Carol Symes, “Liturgical texts and Performance Practices.”

The Liturgy of the Medieval Church, ed. Thomas Heffernan and E. Ann Matter (Kalamazoo, 2001).  Thomas J. Heffernan and E. Ann Matter, “Introduction to the Liturgy of the Medieval Church”; Stephan Borgehammar, “A monastic Conception of the Liturgical Year”; Jonathan Black, “The Divine Office and Private Devotion in the Latin West”; Thomas J. Heffernan, “The Liturgy and the Literature of Saints’ Lives”; Demetrios J. Constantelos, “Liturgy and Liturgical Daily Life in the Medieval Greek World: The Byzantine Empire”; Sven Helander, “The Liturgical Profile of the Parish Church in Medieval Sweden”; Lawrence E. Frizzell and J. Frank Henderson, “Jews and Judaism in the Medieval Latin Liturgy”; Martin R. Dudley, “Sacramental Liturgies in the Middle Ages”; Sherry L. Reames, “The Office for Saint Cecilia”; Elizabeth C. Parker, “Architecture as Liturgical Setting”; Nancy Spatz, “Church Porches and the Liturgy in Twelfth-Century Rome”; Elizabeth Parker McLachlan, “Liturgical Vessels and Implements”; Jeanne E. Krochalis and E. Ann Matter, “Manuscripts of the Liturgy”; Roger S. Wieck, “The Book of Hours”; Ambrose-Aristotle Zographos, “Iconography in the Liiturgical life of the Medieval Greek Church”; Evelyn Birge Vitz, “The Liturgy and Vernacular Literature”; Thomas P. Campbell, “Liturgical Drama and Community Discourse”; Gabriela Ilnitchi, “The Music of the Liturgy”; James W. McKinnon, “Gregorius Presul Composuit Hunc Libellum Musicae Artis”; C. Clifford Flannigan, Kathleen Ashley, and Pamela Sheingorn, “Liturgy as Social Performance: Expanding the Definitions.”

Medieval Liturgy: A Book of Essays, ed. Lizette Larson-Miller (New York, 1997).   Joanne M. Pierce, “The Evolution of the Ordo Missae in the Early Middle Ages”; Gary Macy, “Commentaries on the Mass during the Early Scholastic Period”; Marie Anne Mayeski, “Reading the Word in a Eucharistic Context: The Shape and Methods of Early Medieval Exegesis”; Jan Michael Joncas, “A Skein of Sacred Sevens: Hugh of Amiens on Orders and Ordination”; Michael S. Driscoll, “Penance in Transition: Popular Piety and Practice”; and John K. Leonard, “Rites of Marriage in the Western Middle Ages”; Edward Foley, “The Song of the Assembly in Medieval Eucharist”; Susan A. Rabe, “The Mind’s Eye: Theological Controversy and Religious Architecture in the Reign of Charlemagne”; Paul A. Jacobson, “Sicut Samuhel Unxit David: Early Carolingian Royal Anointings Reconsidered.”

Cheslyn Jones et al., ed., The Study of Liturgy, rev. ed. (Oxford, 1992).   Many short essays with bibliography; covers modern Roman and Anglican liturgy as well as early Christian, medieval, and Eastern liturgies. See esp. D. M Hope, rev. G. Woolfenden, “The Medieval Western Rites,” pp. 264-85.

Art, céremonial et liturgie au moyen âge, ed. Nicolas Bock et al. (Rome, 2002). 

Rituels: Mélanges offerts à Pierre-Marie Gy, o.p., ed. Paul De Clerck and Éric Palazzo (Paris, 1990). 

Segni e riti nella chiesa altomedievale occidentale, 2 vols., Settimane di studio del Centro italiano di studi sull’alto Medioevo, 33 (Spoleto, 1987).  O. Capitani, Ricordo di Raoul Manselli – R. Elze, Le consacrazioni regie – C. Colafemmina, Dal rito ebraico al rito cristiano – S. Casartelli Novelli, Segno salutis e segno ‘iconico’: dalla « invenzione » costantiniana ai codici astratti del primo altomedioevo – V. Saxer, L’initiation chrétienne du II° au VI° siècle: esquisse historique des rites et de leur signification – R. E. Reynolds, Rites and Signs of Conciliar Decisions in the Early Middle Ages – J.-P. Bouhot, Le baptême et sa signification – A. Angenendt, Der Taufritus im frühen Mittelalter – H. Schneider, Aqua benedicta – Das mit Salz gemischte Weihwasser – R. Kottje, Busspraxis und Bussritus – R. E. Reynolds, Rites of Separation and Reconciliation in the Early Middle Ages – M. Cristiani, Tempo rituale e tempo storico. Comunione cristiana e sacrificio. Scelte antropologiche della cultura altomedievale – G. Picasso, Riti eucaristici nella società altomedievale. Sul significato del trattato eucaristico di Pascasio Radberto – P.-M. Gy, La doctrine eucharistique dans la liturgie romaine du haut Moyen-Âge – A. A. Haussling, Missarum sollemnia: beliebige Einzelfeiern oder integrierte Liturgie? – N. Krogh Rasmussen, Célébration épiscopale et célébration presbytérale: un essai de typologie – C. Heitz, Eucharistie, synaxe et espace liturgique – R. Grégoire, L’ordine ed il suo significato: « utilitas » e « caritas » – O. Engels, Der Pontifikatsantritt und seine Zeichen – G. Constable, The Ceremonies and Symbolism of entering Religious Life and taking the Monastic Habit, from the fourth to the twelfth Century – M. Rouche, Des mariages païens au mariage chrétien. Sacré et sacrament – P.-A. Février, La mort chrétienne – P. Boglioni, Discorso conclusivo.

P.-M. Gy, La liturgie dans l’histoire (Paris, 1990). 

Roger Reynolds, Law and Liturgy in the Latin Church, 5th-12th Centuries (Aldershot, 1994). 

Edmund Bishop, Liturgica Historica: Papers on the Liturgy and Religious Life of the Western Church (Oxford, 1918). 

IV. Journals and Organizations


Archiv für Liturgiewissenschaft (1950- ).  (1973). Continues Jahrbuch für Liturgiewissenschaft (1921-35). (1929). Index volume to vols. 1-15 (1921-35) includes indices of biblical sources, names, things, formulae, and initia. The journal website includes a database of its contents.

Ecclesia Orans (1984-95). 

Ephemerides Liturgicae (1887- ). 

Ephemerides Theologicae Lovaniensis (1924- ). 

Liturgical Studies

Liturgisches Jahrbuch (1951- ). 

Questions Liturgiques (1910- ). 

Arte cristiana: Revista internazionale di storia dell’arte e di arti liturgiche/An International Review of Art History and Liturgical Arts (1913- ). 

Revue des sciences philosophiques et théologiques. Includes an annual “Bulletin liturgique.” The website includes a database of contents (see under “Catalogue”).

Rivista Liturgica (2015- ) 

Studia Liturgica (1962- ) 


Societas Liturgica

North American Academy of Liturgy

Liturgiewissenschaftliche Institute, Seminare und Lehrstühle an Universitäten / Hochschulen im Mitteleuropa

V. Major Collections of Sources

USUARIUM: A Digital Library and Database for the Study of Latin Liturgical History in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Period.  “The long-term goal of the Collection is to provide a representative sample of the mediaeval variants of Western liturgy extending to every type of ceremony … Our primary interest is invested in the liturgical Uses of cathedrals, abbeys and centralised religious orders, including their mutual relationships.” Resources are subdivided according to the following categories:

Edmond Martène, De antiquis ecclesiae ritibus libri tres (Antwerp, 1763). See A.-G. MartimortLa documentation liturgique de dom Edmond Martène, Studi e testi 279 (Vatican City, 1978), ; “Additions et corrections à la documentation liturgique de dom Edmond Martène,” Ecclesia Orans 3 (1986), 81-105 ; B. Darragon, Répertoire des piéces euchologiques citées dans le “De antiquis Ecclesiae ritibus” de Dom Martène, Bibliotheca Ephemerides Liturgicae, Subsidia 57 (Rome, 1991). 

Reliquiae liturgicae vetustissimae, 2 vols., ed. F. Cabrol and H. Leclercq (Paris, 1900-13). 

Monumenta eucharistica et liturgica vetustissima, ed. Johannes Quasten, Florilegium patristicum 7, 7 fascicles (Bonn, 1935-36). 

Enchiridion euchologicum fontium liturgicorum. Clavis Methodologica cum Commentariis Selectis, ed. E. Lodi (Rome, 1979). 

CURSUS: An Online Resource of Medieval Liturgical Texts. Currently includes Manuscript Information and Incipits.


Alcuin Club Collections. See Peter J. Jagger, The Alcuin Club and Its Publications, 1897-1987: An Annotated Bibliography, 2nd ed. (London, 1986). 

Henry Bradshaw Society (London, 1891- ). Publications List.  See also Anthony Ward, The Publications of the Henry Bradshaw Society: An Annotated Bibliography with Indexes (Rome, 1992). See also Manuscripts used in HBS Volumes

Liturgiewissenschaftliche Quellen und Forschungen (Münster, 1957).

Monumenta Studia Instrumenta Liturgica (Vatican City, 2000- ). 

Spicilegium Friburgense

VI. Liturgical Latin and Liturgical Formulae

P.-M. Gy, “Le vocabulaire liturgique latin au Moyen âge,” La Lexicographie du Latin médiéval et ses rapports avec les recherches actuelles sur la civilisation du Moyen-Age (Paris, 1981), pp. 295-301. 

Alexius HoffmannLiturgical Dictionary (Collegeville MN, 1928). 

Gabriel Sanders and Marc Van Uytfanghe, Bibliographie signalétique du Latin des chrétiens, CCSL, Lingua Patrum 1 (Turnhout, 1989). See under “Liturgica,” pp. 91-99.

Philippe Bernard, “Les latins de la liturgie (antiquité tardive et moyen-âge): vingt-cinq années de recherches” (1978-2002), Archivum Latinitatis Medii Aevi 60 (2002), 77-170. Exhaustive and invaluable bibliographical and methodological survey.

Christine Mohrmann, Liturgical Latin, Its Origins and Character. Three Lectures (Washington, D.C., 1957). 

Albert Blaise, Le Vocabulaire latin des principaux thèmes liturgiques (Turnhout, 1966).  The first part is a dictionary of Latin words used in the liturgy, each word keyed to a section in the second part, a discursive thematic inventory of liturgical language.

Georg Manz, Ausdrucksformen der lateinischen Liturgiesprache bis ins elfe Jahrhundert (Beuron, 1941).  Alphabetical list of liturgical phrases with indications of their distribution in early manuscripts (Roman, Gallican, Mozarabic, Irish).

VII. Liturgical Books and Manuscripts

Vocabulary and Terminology:

List of Uniform Titles for Liturgical Works of the Latin Rites of the Catholic Church

V. Fiala and W. Irtenkauf, “Versuch einer Liturgischen Nomenklatur,” Zur Katalogisierung mittelalterlicher und neuerer Handschriften, ed. Clemens Köttelwesch (Frankfurt a.M., 1963), pp. 105-37.

Bernhard Bischoff, Mittelalterliche Schatzverzeichnisse, v. 1: Von der Zeit Karls des Grossen bis zur Mitte des 13. Jahrhunderts (Munich, 1967). Edits medieval inventories of church property, including books.

Helmut Gneuss, “Liturgical Books in Anglo-Saxon England and Their Old English Terminology,” in Learning and Literature in Anglo-Saxon England: Studies presented to Peter Clemoes on the Occasion of His Sixty-fifth Birthday, ed. Michael Lapidge and Helmut Gneuss (Cambridge, 1985), pp. 91-141. 

General Studies:

Jeanne E. Krochalis and E. Ann Matter, “Manuscripts of the Liturgy,” in The Liturgy of the Medieval Church, ed. Heffernan and Matter, pp. 433-72.

Les manuscrits liturgiques, Cycle thématique de l’IRHT 2003-2004

Jean-Baptiste Lebigue, Initiation aux manuscrits liturgiques

Jean-Baptiste Lebique, Catalogue des manuscrits liturgiques médievaux et modernes

Eric Palazzo, A History of Liturgical Books from the Beginning to the Thirteenth Century, trans. M. Beaumont (Collegeville MN, 1998).  Complements VogelMedieval Liturgy. Includes discussion of the iconography of the liturgy. Note that “haut moyen âge,” which means “early Middle Ages,” is misleadingly translated “High Middle Ages.”

Andrew Hughes, Medieval Manuscripts for Mass and Office: A Guide to Their Organization and Terminology (Toronto, 1982).  Elaborate typology of liturgical books based on a large sampling of mostly later medieval manuscripts.

Francesco Antonio Zaccaria, Bibliotheca ritualis, 2 vols. in 3 pts. (Rome, 1776-81). t. 1. De libris ad sacros utriusque ecclesiae orientalis et occidentalis ritus pertinentibust. 2. De librorum ritualium explanatoribust. 2, pars altera. Supplementa continens praemisso cl. viri Joannis Maldonati inedito De caeremoniis tractatu; cui praeter adnotationes adcedit gemina editoris dissertatio

Victor Leroquais, Les manuscrits liturgiques latins du haut Moyen Âge à la Renaissance (Paris, 1931). 

Eric Palazzo, “Le rôle des libelli dans la pratique liturgique du haut Moyen Age: Histoire et typologie,” Revue Mabillon 62 (1990), 9-36. 

P.-M. Gy, “The Different Forms of Liturgical Libelli,” in Fountain of Life, ed. Gerard Austin (Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 22-34. 

Catalogues of Liturgical Manuscripts:

Paul Oskar Kristeller and Sigrid Krämer, Latin Manuscript Books before 1600: A List of the Printed Catalogues and Unpublished Inventories of Extant Collections, rev. digital ed. 2016. Catalogues of liturgical manuscripts can be found by searching “liturg?” in Freie Suche”; or more narrowly by searching “liturg?” and choosing the name of a specific city and library (select “Bibliothek” and click on “Register,” then search the register by city name to get a complete list of libraries to choose from.

USUARIUM: A Digital Library and Database for the Study of Latin Liturgical History in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Period: Catalogues.

Giacomo Baroffio, “I manoscritti liturgici,” Guida a una descrizione uniforme dei manoscritti e al loro censimento, ed. V. Jemolo and M. Morelli (Rome, 1990), pp. 145-200. 

Theodor Klauser, “Repertorium liturgicum und Liturgischer Spezialkatalog, Vorschläge zum Problem der liturgischen Handschriften,” in his Gesammelte Arbeiten zur Liturgiegeschichte, Kirchengeschichte und christlichen Archäologie (Münster, 1974). 

Hanns Bohatta, Liturgische Bibliographie des XV. Jahrhunderts mit Ausnahme der Missale und Livres d’heures (Vienna, 1911; repr. 1961).

Musicalia Mediaevalia. Ressources électroniques pour l’étude des sources manuscrites de la musique et de la théorie de la musique médiévales

Digital Image Archive of Medieval Manuscripts. Includes data from the Repertoire International des Sources Musicales, series B/IV: Manuscripts of Polyphonic Music, 11-16 Centuries. For a tutorial, see “Negotiating DIAMM” (Margot Fassler).

Liturgical Manuscripts on Microfilm (Harvard Univ. Library).

Manuscripts Used in Henry Bradshaw Society Volumes


N. Sacksteder, “A Provisional List of Inventories of Latin Liturgical Manuscripts and Incunabula of the Middle Ages,” Ephemerides Liturgicae 99 (1985), 60-82. . Lists catalogues by Country, City, and Library; also includes sections on General Catalogues, Religious Orders, and Specific Liturgical Books.

Dubois and Lemaitre, Sources et méthodes, pp. 67-74.

Klaus Gamber, Codices Liturgici Latini Antiquiores, 2 vols., Spicilegii Friburgensis Subsidia 1 (Fribourg, 1968). . The standard catalogue for liturgical manuscripts up to ca. 800. With a Supplementum. Ergänzungs- und Registerband, ed. G. Baroffio et al. (Fribourg, 1988). 

Base de manuscrits internet. Database of liturgical manuscripts on the internet (Excel spreadsheet, 7/1/2011).

See also Boyle, Medieval Latin Palaeography, index s.v. “Liturgy, books of.”

By Liturgical Book:  see under individual types of book, esp. in sections IX-XI, XVII.
By Country/Library:

Dictionnaire d’archéologie chrétienne et de liturgie, 15 vols., ed. F. Cabrol, H. Leclercq, and H. Marrou (Paris, 1907-53).  Includes entries (by name of city), with descriptions (of varying length and quality) of the liturgical manuscripts in the major libraries. For detailed listings by region, esp. for France, Germany, and Italy, see Sacksteder.



Knud Ottosen, Database on Danish Liturgical Fragments from the Middle Ages


Victor Leroquais, Les Bréviaires manuscrits des bibliothèques publiques de France, 6 vols. (Paris, 1933).   Database version.

Victor Leroquais, Les Livres d’Heures manuscrits de la Bibliothèque nationale, 4 vols. (Paris-Mâcon, 1927-1943). 

Victor Leroquais, Les Pontificaux manuscrits des bibliothèques publiques de France, 3 vols. (Paris, 1937). 

Victor Leroquais, Les Psautiers manuscrits latins des bibliothèques publiques de France, 3 vols. (Mâcon, 1940-1941).  

Victor Leroquais, Les Sacramentaires et missels manuscrits des bibliothèques publiques de France, 4 vols. (Paris, 1924)

Robert Amiet, Inventaire général des livres liturgiques du diocèse de Lyon (Paris, 1979). 

Robert Amiet, Les manuscrits liturgiques du Diocèse de Lyon: description et analyse (Paris, 1998). 

Germany, Austria, and Switzerland:

Liturgical Manuscripts in German Libraries (Cantus Planus database).

Leo Eizenhöfer und Hermann Knaus, Die liturgischen Handschriften der Hessischen Landes- und Hochschulbibliothek Darmstadt, 3 vols. (Wiesbaden, 1968). 

Liturgische Texte. Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

Musikalische Quellen des Mittelalters in der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek

Katalog des liturgischen Buch- und Musikalienbestandes am Dom zu Salzburg. Teil 1. Die gedruckten und handschriftlichen liturgischen Bücher, ed. Franz Wasner, Stefan Engels, and Ernst Hintermaier. Teil 2. Die Musikhandschriften und Musikdrucke in Chorbuch-Notierung, ed. Ernst Hintermaier (Salzburg, 1922). 

Iter Helveticum, ed. Pascal Ladner, 5 vols. to date (Fribourg, 1976- ). 

Great Britain and Ireland:

Liturgical Manuscripts in British Libraries (David Hiley, Cantus Planus database).

Walter H. Frere, Bibliotheca musico-liturgica: A Descriptive Handlist of the Musical and Latin-Liturgical MSS of the Middle Ages Preserved in the Libraries of Great Britain and Ireland, 2 vols. (London, 1901-32; repr. 1967).   Vol. 1.  Includes indices of types of service, persons, and places. Liturgical Manuscripts in British Libraries.

Stephen J. P. van Dijk, Handlist of the Latin Liturgical Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, 3 vols. in 78 pts. (1957-60). Unpublished typescript  MSS. Eng. liturg. d. 8/1-8 = R. 6.  Data included in HileyLiturgical Manuscripts in British Libraries.

Richard W. Pfaff, “Manuscripts and Catalogues,” in Pfaff, The Liturgy in Medieval England, pp. 20-25.

Richard W. Pfaff, ed., The Liturgical Books of Anglo-Saxon England, Old English Newsletter Subsidia 23 (Kalamazoo, 1995). 

K. D. Hartzell, Catalogue of Manuscripts Written or Owned in England up to 1200 containing Music (Woodbridge, 2006). 


Polikarp Radó, Libri liturgici manuscripti bibliothecarum Hungariae: tomus I: Libri liturgici manuscripti ad Missam pertinentes (Budapest, 1947). 

Polikarp Radó, Index codicum manuscriptorum liturgicorum Regni Hungariae (Budapest, 1941).

Italy and Vatican City:

Giacomo Baroffio, Iter Liturgicum Italicum

Brian Moeller Jensen, Medieval Liturgical Texts in Italian Manuscripts (Lewiston, 2006). 

Pierre Salmon, Les manuscrits liturgiques latins de la Bibliothèque Vaticane, 5 vols., Studi e testi 251, 253, 260, 267, and 270 (Vatican City, 1968-1972). 

Pierre Salmon, Analecta liturgica: extraits des manuscrits liturgiques de la Bibliothèque vaticane: contribution à l’histoire de la prière chrétienne, Studi e testi 273 (Vatican City, 1974). 

Biblioteca apostolica vaticana: Liturgie und Andacht im Mittelalter, ed. J. M. Plotzek and U. Surmann (Stuttgart, 1992). 

C. Zivelonghi and G. Adami, I codici liturgici della Catedrale di Verona (Verona, 1987). 

Monumenta Liturgica Beneventana


Hispania Vetus: Manuscritos litúrgico-musicales de los orígenes visigóticos a la transición francorromana (siglos ix-xii), ed. Susana Zapke (Bilbao, 2007). \\

José JaniniManuscritos liturgicos de las bibliotecas de España, 2 vols. (Aldecoa, Burgos, 1977-80).

José Janini and José Seranno, Manuscritos litúrgicos de la Biblioteca Nacional (Madrid, 1969). 

José Janini, Ramón Gonzálvez, and A. M. Mundó, Catálogo de los manuscritos litúrgicos de la Catedral de Toledo (Toledo, 1977). 

Andrew Hughes, Medieval Liturgical Books in Twenty-Three Spanish Libraries: Provisional Inventories (New York, 1982). 

By Order:

Dominican Liturgical Books

Philip Gleeson, “Dominican Liturgical Manuscripts before 1254” Archivum Fratrum Praedicatorum, 42 (1972)

VIII. Calendars and the Ecclesiastical Year

For more detailed references see Dubois and Lemaitre, Sources et méthodes, pp. 135-60. For martyrologies see the bibliography on Hagiography.

Harald Buchinger, “On the Origin and Development of the Liturgical Year: Tendencies, Results, and Desiderata of Heorotological Research,” Studia Liturgica 40 (2010), 14-45.

A. Adam, The Liturgical Year, trans. J. O’Connell (New York, 1981). 

Fernand Cabrol, The Year’s Liturgy: The Sundays, Feriae and Feasts of the Liturgical Year, 2 vols. (London, 1938-40): Vol I, The Seasons; Vol. 2, The Sanctoral

Prosper Guéranger, The Liturgical Year, 3rd ed., trans. L. Shepherd et al. (Dublin, 1883-94); revision of French ed., 5 vols. (Tournai, 1948-52). 

K. A. Heinrich Kellner, Heortology: A History of the Christian Festivals from Their Origin to the Present Day (London, 1908)

Nicolaus Nilles, Kalendarium manuale utriusque ecclesiae orientalis et occidentalis, 2 vols., 2nd ed. (Innsbruck, 1896-97). vol. 1; vol.2

J. Pascher, Das liturgische Jahr (1963).  Spanish ed., El año litúrgico, trans. Daniel Ruiz Bueno (Madrid, 1965). 

Thomas J. Talley, The Origins of the Liturgical Year, 2nd ed. (Collegeville MN, 1986). 

Arno Borst, Die karolingische Kalenderreform, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Schriften 46 (Hannover, 1998). 

M. Bradford Bedingfield, The Dramatic Liturgy of Anglo-Saxon England (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002). 

Francis Wormald, English Benedictine Kalendars before A.D. 1100, Henry Bradshaw Society 72 (London, 1934). 

For folklore associated with liturgical seasons and feasts, see Roland Hutton, Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain (Oxford, 1996). 

Major Feasts of the Temporale:


Prosper Guéranger, The Liturgical Year: Advent, trans. Laurence Shepherd, 2nd ed. (Dublin, 1870). 

Patrick Cowley, Advent: Its Liturgical Significance, Alcuin Club Publications (London, 1960). 

Th. Maertens, “L’Avent. Genèse historique de ses thèmes bibliques et doctrinaux,” Mélanges de science religieuse 38 (1961), 47-110. 

James W. McKinnon, The Advent Project: The Later Seventh-Century Creation of the Roman Mass Proper (Berkeley CA, 2000).

Margot Fassler, “Sermons, Sacramentaries, and Early Sources for the Office: The Example of Advent” in The Divine Office in the Latin Middle Ages, ed. Rebecca Baltzer and Margot Fassler (Oxford, 2000), 15-47. 


Hans Förster, Die Anfänge von Weihnachten und Epiphanias: Eine Anfrage an die Entstehungshypothesen, Studien und Texte zu Antike und Christentum 46 (Tübingen, 2007).


Hans Förster, Die Anfänge von Weihnachten und Epiphanias: Eine Anfrage an die Entstehungshypothesen, Studien und Texte zu Antike und Christentum 46 (Tübingen, 2007).

Jan Te Velde, “Light up on the Soul: Mystical Aspects of the Feast of Epiphany,” in Traditions recomposes: Liturgie et doctrine en Harmonie ou en Tension, ed. André Lossky and Goran Sekulovski, Sémaines d’Études Liturgies Saint-Serge 63 (Münster, 2017), pp. 271-88.

A. Vermeulen, “Le développement sémiologique d’Epiphaneia et la fête de l’Épiphanie,” in Supplementa, fasc. I: Graecitas et Latinitas Christianorum primaeva (Nijmegen, 1964), pp. 7-44.

Christine Mohrmann, “Epiphania,” in Mohrmann, Études sur le latin des chrétiens, vol. 1 (Rome, 1961), pp. 245-75.

Jean Daniélou, “Les Origines de l’Epiphanie et les ‘Testimonia’,” in Noël-Épiphanie: … Semaine liturgique de l’Institut Saint-Serge, Lex Orandi 49 (Paris, 1967), pp. 65-84.

Quadragesima and Lent:

Harald Buchinger, “On the Early History of Quadragesima: A New Look at an Old Problem and Some Proposed Solution,” in Liturgies in East and West: Acts of the International Symposium Vindobonense I, Vienna, November 17-20, 2007, ed. Hans-Jürgen Feulner, Österreichische Studien zur Liturgiewissenschaft und Sakramententheologie 6 (Vienna, 2013), pp. 99-118.

Holy Week and Easter:

Avitus of Vienne, “Homily 6 on Rogations,” trans. Danuta Shanzer and Ian Wood in Avitus of Vienne:  Letters and Selected Prose (Liverpool, 2002), pp. 381-90.

Nathan Ristuccia, Christianization and Commonwealth in Early Medieval Europe: A Ritual Interpretation (Oxford, 2018).

Geoffrey Nathan, “The Rogation Ceremonies of Late Antique Gaul: Creation, Transmission and the Role of the Bishop,” Classica et Mediaevalia 49 (1998), 274-302.

Joyce Hill, “The Litaniae maiores and minores in Rome, Francia and Anglo-Saxon England: Terminology, Texts and Traditions,” Early Medieval Europe 9 (2000), 211-46.

André Vauchez, “Liturgy and Folk Culture in the Golden Legend,” in Vauchez, The Laity in the Middle Ages:  Religious Beliefs and Devotional Practices, ed. Daniel E. Bornstein (Notre Dame IN, 1993), pp. 129-139, 291-93.

Jacques Le Goff, Time, Work, and Culture in the Middle Ages, trans. A. Goldhammer (Chicago, 1980), pp. 159-88.

Trinity Sunday:
Corpus Christi:

IX. The Mass, Sacramentaries, and Missals


Missa mediaevalis: Eine Darstellung der mittelalterlichen Messe. Includes an extensive bibliography and glossary.

Arnold Angenendt, Offertorium: Das mittelalterliche Meßopfer, 3rd ed. Liturgiewissenschaftliche Quellen und Forschungen 101 (Münster, 2014). 

Joseph A. Jungmann, The Mass of the Roman Rite: Its Origins and Development (Missarum sollemnia), 2 vols., trans. Francis A. Brunner (New York, 1951-55).  There is a later 5th ed. of the German original, Missarum Sollemnia: Eine genetische Erklärung der römischen Messe (1962). 

Anton Baumstark, Missale Romanum: Seine Entwicklung, ihre wichtigsten Urkunden und Probleme (Eindhoven-Nijmegen, 1929). 

Adalbert Ebner, Quellen und Forschungen zur Geschichte und Kunstgeschichte des Missale romanum im Mittelalter. Iter italicum (Freiburg i.B., 1896). 

Dom Propser Guéranger, Explanation of the Prayers and Ceremonies of the Holy Mass

O. B. Hardison, Jr., Christian Rite and Christian Drama in the Middle Ages (Baltimore, 1965). 

Paul de Clerck, La prière universelle dans les liturgies latines anciennes: témoignages patristiques et textes liturgiques (Münster, 1977). 

Angelus Albert Häussling, Mönchskonvent und Eucharistiefeier: Eine Studie über die Messe in der abendländischen Klosterliturgie des frühen Mittelalters und zur Geschichte der Messhäufigkeit (Münster, 1973). 

Adolph Franz, Die messe im deutschen mittelalter. Beiträge zur geschichte der liturgie und des religiösen volkslebens (Darmstadt, 1963). 

Angelus Albert Häussling, Das Missale deutsch: Materialien zur Rezeptionsgeschichte der lateinischen Messliturgie im deutschen Sprachgebeit bis zum Zweiten Vatikanischen Konzil, 2 vols. (Münster, 1984). 

H. Netzer, L’introduction de la messe romaine en France sous les Carolingiens (Paris, 1910). 

Ordinary and Canon of the Mass:

In the Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church see: Ordinary of the Mass; Kyrie; Gloria in excelsis; CreedCanon of the Mass; Sursum CordaPreface; Sanctus; Fractionepiclesis; Benedictus; Lord’s Prayer; Agnus Dei.

B. Botte, Le canon de la messe romaine. Édition critique (Louvain, 1935). 

B. Botte and Christine Mohrmann, L’ordinaire de la messe. Texte critique, traduction et études (Paris, 1953). 

Edward Foley, “The Song of the Assembly in the Medieval Eucharist,” in Medieval Liturgy, ed. Larson-Miller, pp. 203-34.

Brian D. Spinks, The Sanctus in the Eucharistic Prayer (New York, 1991). 

Proper of the Mass:

In the Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church see: Proper of the Mass; Introit; CollectGradual; Alleluia; Sequence; Offertory; Secret.

James W. McKinnon, The Advent Project: The Later-Seventh-Century Creation of the Roman Mass Proper (Berkeley CA, 2000). 

Peter Jeffrey, “The Oldest Sources of the Graduale: A Preliminary Checklist of MSS Copied Before About 900 AD,” Journal of Musicology 2 (1983), 316-21. 

The Gradualia Project. See Gábor Kiss, “Comparative Research into Medieval Mass Repertories,” in Papers read at the 15th meeting of the IMS Study Group Cantus Planus, Dobogákő/Hungary, 2009. Aug. 23–29, ed. Barbara Haggh-Huglo, Debra Lacoste (Lions Bay, 2013), pp. 361-84. 

Michel Huglo, “Le répons-graduel de la messe. Évolution de la forme, permanence de la fonction,” Schweizer Jahrbuch für Musikwissenschaft n.s. 2 (1982), 53-73; repr. in Huglo, Chant grégorien et musique médiévale (Aldershot, 2005), art. III. 

G. G. Willis, “The Variable Prayers in the Roman Mass,” Further Essays in the Early Roman Liturgy, Alcuin Club Collections 50 (1968), 91-121. 

B. Capelle, “Collecta,” Revue Bénédictine 42 (1930), 197-304. 

Christopher Tietze, Hymn Introits for the Liturgical Year: The Origin and Early Development of the Latin Texts (Chicago, 2007). 

Renie S. Choy, Intercessory Prayer and the Monastic Ideal in the Time of the Carolingian Reforms (Oxford, 2017). 

Astrid Krüger, Litanei-Handschriften der Karolingerzeit, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Hilfsmittel 24 (Hannover, 2007). 

Anglo-Saxon Litanies of the Saints, ed. Michael Lapidge, Henry Bradshaw Society 106 (London, 1991). 

English Monastic Litanies of the Saints after 1100, ed. Nigel J. Morgan, 3 vols., Henry Bradshaw Society 119-121 (London, 2012-18).

General Studies:

Marcel Metzger, Les sacramentaires, Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental 70 (Turnhout, 1994). 

E. Bourque, Études sur les sacramentaires romains, 2 vols. (Rome, 1958). 

Antoine Chavasse, Les ancêtres du Missale Romanum (1570), Studia Anselmiana 118 (Rome, 1995). 

Léopold Delisle, “Mémoire sur d’anciens sacramentaires,” Mémoires de l’Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres 32 (1886), 57-423. 

Jean Deshusses, “Les sacramentaires. État actuel de la recherche,” Archiv für Liturgiewissenschaft 24 (1982), 19-46. 

Jean Deshusses, “The Sacramentaries: A Progress Report,” Liturgy 18.1 (1984), 13-60. 

Victor Leroquais, Les sacramentaires et les missels manuscrits des bibliothèques publiques de France, 4 vols. (1924). 

Jean Deshusses and B. Darragon, Concordances et tableaux pour l’étude des grands sacramentaires, 3 vols. (Fribourg, 1982-83).  Some of the major sacramentaries have been published in CCSL and are in effect concorded in the Library of Latin Texts database.

Petrus Siffrin, Konkordanztabellen zu den römischen Sakramentarien, 3 vols. Rerum ecclesiasticarum documenta. Series minor, Subsidia studiorum 4-6 (Rome, 1958- ). 

Richard Pfaff, The Liturgy in Medieval England, pp. 58-61, has a table of the “Roman” sanctorale as reflected in the Old Gelasian, Young Gelasian, and Gregorian sacramentaries.


Leo Cunibert Mohlberg, Die älteste erreichbare Gestalt des Liber Sacramentorum anni circuli der römischen Kirche, Liturgiegeschichtliche Quellen und Forschungen 11/12 (Münster, 1927). 

“Leonine Sacramentary”:

Leo Cunibert Mohlberg, Sacramentarium Veronense, Rerum ecclesiasticarum documenta. Series major 1 (Rome, 1956).   Also known as the “Leonine sacramentary,” it is not actually a sacramentary but an earlier collection of Roman libelli missarum.

Old Gelasian: 

Alfio Massimo Martelli, ed., Il Sacramentario gelasiano: Cod. Vat. Reginense 316: primo testimone completo dell’esperimento della liturgia romana nella Gallia precarolingia (Trento, 2003). 

Leo Cunibert Mohlberg, Leo Eisenhofer, and Petrus Siffrin, Liber sacramentorum Romanae Aeclesiae ordinis anni circuli: (Cod. Vat. Reg. lat. 316/Paris Bibl. Nat. 7193, 41/56): (Sacramentarium Gelasianum), Rerum ecclesiasticarum documenta: series maior: Fontes; 4, 3rd ed. (Rome, 1981). 

H. A. Wilson, The Gelasian Sacramentary (Oxford, 1894). 

Antoine Chavasse, trans., Textes liturgiques de l’Église de Rome: Le cycle liturgique romain annuel selon le sacramentaire du «Vaticanus reginensis 316» (Paris, 1997). 

Young or “Frankish” (Eighth-Century) Gelasian (Gellone, Angoulême, Autun):

Antoine Chavasse, Le sacramentaire dans le group dit “Gélatines du VIIIe siècle”: Une compilation raisonnée, Étude des procédés de confection et Synoptiques nouveau modèle, 2 vols. Instrumenta Patristica 14A-B (Steenbrugge, 1984). 

Liber sacramentorum gellonensis, ed. Jean Deshusses, CCSL 159, 159A (Turnhout, 1981). 

Liber sacramentorum Engolismensis, ed. P. Saint-Roch, CCSL 159C (Turnhout, 1987). 

Liber sacramentorum augustodunensis, ed. O. Heiming, CCSL 159B (Turnhout, 1984). 


Jean Deshusses, Le sacramentaire grégorien. Ses principales formes d’après les plus anciens manuscrits (Fribourg, 1971-1982). 

H. A. Wilson, The Gregorian Sacramentary under Charles the Great, Henry Bradshaw Society 49 (London, 1915). 

F. Combaluzier, Sacramentaires de Bergame et d’Ariberto: Tables des matières, index des formules, Instrumenta patristica 5 (Steenbrugge, 1962). 


Bibliographia liturgica. Catalogus missalium ritus latini ab anno 1474 impressorum, ed. William Weale and Hanns Bohatta (London, 1886). 

Robert Amiet, Missels et bréviaires imprimés. (Supplément aux catalogues de Weale et Bohatta). Propre des saints (Paris, 1990). 

W. H. J. Weale, Bibliographia liturgica. Catalogus missalium ritus latini, ab anno M. CCCC. LXXIV. impressorum, ed. H. Bohatta (London, 1928). 


Antoine Chavasse, Les ancêtres du Missale Romanum (1570), Studia Anselmiana 118; Analecta liturgica 20 (Rome, 1995). 

Klaus GamberMissa Romensis. Beiträge zur fruhen romischen Liturgie und zu den Anfangen der Missale Romanum (Regensburg, 1970). 

Il Messale romano: tradizione, traduzione, adattamento: atti della XXX Settimana di studio dell’Associazione professori di liturgia, Gazzada, 25-30 agosto, 2002, ed. Cesare Girando (Rome, 2003). 

R. Lippe, ed., Missale Romanum, Mediolani, 1474, 2 vols. Henry Bradshaw Society 17, 33 (1899, 1907).  Vol. 1; Vol. 2.

Roman Missal: Missale Romanum ex decreto sacrosancti Concilii Tridentini restitutum … (New York, 1964). 

P. Bruylants, Les oraisons du missel romain: Texte et histoire, 2 vols. (Louvain, 1952). 

A. Pflieger, Liturgicae orationis concordantia verbalia, pt. 1: Missale Romanum (Rome, 1964). 


KaskeMedieval Christian Literary Imagery, pp. 61-63.

Richard Pfaff, The Liturgy in Medieval England, passim (see index under “Missals” and under specific Uses, e.g. “Sarum Use”).

Matthew Cheung Salisbury, “Rethinking the Uses of Sarum and York: A Historiographical Essay,” in Understanding Medieval Liturgy, ed. Gittos and Hamilton, pp. 103-22.

William Maskell, The Ancient Liturgy of the Church of England, According to the Uses of Sarum, York, Hereford, and Bangor, and the Roman Liturgy Arranged in Parallel Columns with Preface and Notes, 3rd. ed. (Oxford, 1882). 

John Allen Hackney III, Ordinale Sarisburiense. A Transliteration of BL Harley 1001 Folios 1R-116V. TemporaleSanctorale.

J. Wickham Legg, ed., The Sarum Missal (Oxford, 1916). 

F. H. Dickinson, Missale ad usum insignis et praeclarae ecclesiae Sarum (Burntisland, 1861-83). 

Frederick E. Warren, The Sarum Missal in English, 2 vols. (London, 1911).  Vol. 1; Vol. 2.

Nick Sandon, The Use of Salisbury, 6 vols. (Newton Abbot, 1986-99). . v.1. The Ordinary of the Mass;  v.2. The Proper of the Mass in Advent; v.3. The Proper of the Mass from Septuagesima to Psalm Sunday; v.4. The Masses and Ceremonies of Holy Week; v.5. The Proper of the Mass from Easter to Trinity; v.6. The Proper of the Mass from Trinity to Advent.

C. Brooke, “Prescription and Reality in the Rubrics of the Sarum Rite Service Books,” in Intellectual Life in the Middle Ages: Essays Presented to Margaret Gibson (London, 1992). 

J. Wickham Legg, ed., Missale ad usum Westmonasteriensis, 3 vols., Henry Bradshaw Society 1, 5, 12 (London, 1891, 1893, 1897).  Vol. 1; Vol. 2; Vol. 3.

W. G. Henderson, ed., Missale ad usum insignis Ecclesiæ eboracensis, Surtees Society, 59-60 (Durham, 1874).  Vol. 1; Vol. 2.

W. G. Henderson, ed., Missale ad usum percelebris ecclesiae Herfordensis (Leeds, 1874). 

William Smith, The Use of Hereford: The Sources of a Medieval English Diocesan Rite (Burlington VT, 2015). 


Concordantia Missalis Hispano-Mozarabici, ed. Félix María Arocena, Adolfo Ivorra, and Alessandro Toniolo, Monumenta Studia Instrumenta Liturgica 57 (Vatican City, 2009). 

Mass Prefaces, Benedictions, Orationes:

Corpus praefationum, ed. E. Moeller, 5 vols., CCSL 161, 161A-D (Turnhout, 1980- ). Volume 161 contains a “Calendarium Liturgicum,” pp. cxxiv-cliii by which prefaces for particular feasts can be located.

Corpus benedictionum pontificalium, ed. E. Moeller, 4 vols., CCSL 162, 162A-C (Turnhout, 1971-79). . “Calendarium Liturgicum” inserted in back cover of vol. 162; vols. 162BC include a complete Index verborum.

Robert Amiet, ed., The Benedictional of Freising, Henry Bradshaw Society 88 (London, 1974). 

A. Franz, Die kirchlichen Benediktionen im Mittelalter, 2nd ed., 2 vols. (1909; repr. Graz, 1960).  Vol. 1; Vol. 2.

Andrew Prescott, “The Structure of English Pre-Conquest Benedictionals,” British Library Journal 13 (1987), 118-58. 

Reiner Kaczynski, “Blessings in Rome and the Non-Roman West,” in Handbook for Liturgical Studies, Volume IV: Sacraments and Sacramentals, ed. Chupungco, pp. 393-410.

Elena Velkova Velkovska, “Blessings in Rome and the Non-Roman West,” in Handbook for Liturgical Studies, Volume IV: Sacraments and Sacramentals, ed. Chupungco, pp. 382-91.

Corpus Orationum, ed. E. Moeller et al., 13 vols., CCSL 160, 160A-L (Turnhout, 1992-2003).  “Calendarium Liturgicum” in vol. 160K.

A. Hänggi and I. Pahl, ed., Prex eucharistica: Textus e variis liturgiis antiquioribus selecti, Spicilegium Friburgense 12 (Fribourg, 1968). 

Albert Gerhards, Heinzgerd Brakmann, and Martin Klöckener, ed, Prex eucharistica III/1, Studia Pars prima: Ecclesia antiqua et occidentalis, Spicilegium Friburgense 42 (Fribourg, 2005). 

X. Ordines, Pontificals, Rituals, Customaries, Ordinaries, Processionals, Ceremonials

Ordines, Ordinaries, and Ceremonials:

A.-G. Martimort, Les “Ordines,” les ordinaires et les cérémoniaux, Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental 56 (Turnhout, 1991). 

Ordines Romani bibliography

Michel Andrieu, ed., Les Ordines Romani du haut moyen âge, 5 vols. Spicilegium sacrum Lovaniense 11, 23-24, 28-29 (Louvain, 1931, 1948-51, 1956-61). 

Alan Griffith, Ordo Romanus Primus: Latin Text and Translation with Introduction and Notes, Joint Liturgical Studies 73 (Norwich, 2012). 

Coronation ordines:

Percy Ernst Schramm, Kaiser, Könige und Päpste: Gesammelte Aufsätze zur Geschichte des Mittelalters, 4 vols. in 5 (Stuttgart, 1968-71). 

Percy Ernst Schramm, A History of the English Coronation, trans. Leopold G. Wickham Legg (Oxford, 1937). 


Jean-Loup Lemaitre, “Les ordinaires. Une source à redécouvrir?,” Revue d’histoire de l’Église de France 89 (2003), 121-31. 

Tilmann Lohse, “Stand und Perspektiven der Liber ordinarius-Forschung,” in Liturgie in mittelalterlichen Frauenstiften. Forschung zum Liber ordinarius, ed. Klaus G. Beuckers (Essen, 2012), pp. 215-55. 

Tilmann Lohse, “Éditer des Libri ordinarii. Réflexions et suggestions autour d’un type particulier de livres liturgiques,” Revue Mabillon n.s. 26 (2015), 155-77 (with extensive bibliography at p. 156, n. 7). 

Edward Foley, “The Libri Ordinarii: An Introduction,” Ephemerides Liturgicae 102 (1988), 129-37. 

Jean-Baptiste Lebigue. Liturgical Documents: French Ordinals. French Ordinals, May 2009, Kalamazoo (Michigan), United States.

P. Collomb, J.-B. Lebique, and O. Legendre, Catalogue des ordinaires des bibliothèques publiques de France (Paris, 2011). 


Jean-Baptiste Lebigue, “Les cérémoniaux manuscrits à la fin du Moyen Âge,” in Les cérémoniaux catholiques en France à l’époque moderne: une littérature de codification des rites liturgiques, ed. Cécile Davy-Rigaux, Bernard Dompnier and Daniel-Odon Hurel (Turnhout, 2009), pp. 45-58. 


Niels Krogh Rasmussen, Les pontificaux du haut moyen âge. Genèse du livre de l’évêque, Spicilegium Sacrum Lovaniense, Études et Documents 49 (Leuven, 1998). 

Richard Kay, Pontificalia: A Repertory of Latin Manuscript Pontificals and Benedictionals

J. Brückmann, “Latin Manuscript Pontificals and Benedictionals in England and Wales,” Traditio 29 (1973), 391-458. 

N. K. Rasmussen, “Unité et diversité des Pontificaux latins aux VIIIe, IXe, et Xe siècles,” in Liturgie et l’Église particulière et liturgie de l’Église universelle (Saint-Serge, 1975), pp. 393-410. 

Cyrille Vogel and R. Elze, ed., Le Pontifical romano-germanique du dixième siècle, 3 vols. (1963-72). 

PRG database: A tool for navigating Le Pontifical Romano-Germanique, ed. Cyrille Vogel & Reinhard Elze

Henry Parkes, “Questioning the Authority of Vogel and Elze’s Pontifical romano-germanique, in Understanding Medieval Liturgy, ed. Gittos and Hamiltion, pp. 75-101.

Michel Andrieu, ed., Le Pontifical romain au moyen-âge, 4 vols., Studi e testi, 86-88, 99 (Vatican City, 1938-41). 

Monique Goullet, Guy Lobrichon et Éric Palazzo, trans., Le Pontifical de la curie romaine au XIIIe siècle (Paris, 2004). 

Pontificale romanvm Clementis VIII. pont. max. ivssv restitvtvm atqve editvm (Rome, 1595). 

Victor Leroquais, Les pontificaux. Manuscrits des bibliothèques publiques de France, 4 vols. (1937).

Giacomo Baroffio, Pontificalia & Ritualia Italica

Collectars, Rituals, Processionals:

Richard W. Pfaff, “Liturgical Processions,” Oxford Bibliographies.

P.-M. Gy, “Collectaire, Rituel, Processional,” Revue des sciences philosophiques et théologiques 44 (1960), 441-69. 

Gisèle Clément, “Bibliographie,” in Le Processionnal en Aquitaine, IXe-XIIIe siècle. Genèse d’un livre et d’un répertoire (Paris, 2017), pp. 255-76. Includes a list of editions of Processionals.

Michel Huglo, Les manuscrits du processionnal, 2 vols, Répertoire International des Sources Musicales 14/1-2 (Munich, 2001-04).

Moving Subjects: Processional Performance in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, ed. Kathleen M. Ashley and Wim Hüsken (Amsterdam, 2001).

Peter Kritzinger, “Christliche Prozessionen in Spätantike und Frühmittelalter,” in Sakralität und Devianz. Konstruktionen – Normen – Praxis, ed. Klaus Herbers and Larissa Düchting (Stuttgart, 2015), pp. 21-43.

Malcolm Floyd, “Processional Chants in English Monastic Sources,” Journal of the Plainsong and Mediaeval Music Society, 13 (1990) ,1-48.

Terence BaileyThe Processions of Sarum and the Western Church, Studies and Texts 21 (Toronto, 1971). 

Vogel, Medieval Liturgy, pp. 257-71.

Annick Aussedat and Jean-Baptiste Molin, Répertoire des rituels et processionnaux imprimés en France (Paris, 1984). 

Michel Huglo, Les manuscrits du processional, Répertoire International des Sources Musicales B/XIV/1-2:  vol.  I: Autrich à Espagne (Munich, 1999) covers Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Spain, Switzerland; vol.  II:  France à Afrique (Munich, 2004 covers Croatia, France, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States. 

C. W. Brockett, The Repertory of Processional Antiphons, De Musicae Cultu 1 (Turnhout, 2018).


Consuetudines Et Regulae: Sources for Monastic Life in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period, ed. Carolyn Marino Malone and Clark Maines (Turnhout, 2014). 

Bruno Albers, Consuetudines Monasticae, 5 vols. (Stuttgart, 1911-12).  Vols. 1-3.

Kassius Hallinger, ed. Corpus consuetudinum monasticarum (Siegburg, 1963- ). 

Kassius Hallinger, “Consuetudo: Begriff, Formen, Forschungsgeschichte, Inhalt,” in Untersuchungen zu Kloster und Stift, Veröffentlichungen des Max-Planck-Instituts für Geschichte 68 (Göttingen, 1980), pp. 140-66. 

Charles Dereine, “Coutumiers et ordinaires de chanoines reguliers,” Scriptorium 5 (1951), 107-13; 13 (1959), 244-46

L. Donnat, “Les coutumes monastiques autour de l’an Mil,” in Religion et culture autour de l’an Mil: Royaume capétien et Lotharingie, ed. Dominique Iogna-Prat and J.-C. Picard (Paris, 1990), pp. 17-24. 

L. Donnat, “Les coutumiers monastiques: Une nouvelle entreprise et un territoire nouveau,” Revue Mabillon n.s. 3 (1992), 5-21. 

[Regularis Concordia]. The Monastic Agreement of the Monks and Nuns of the English Nation, trans. Thomas Symons (London, 1953). 

Lucia Kornexl, ed., Die Regularis concordia und ihre altenglische Interlinearversion mit Einleitung und Kommentar (Munich, 1993). 

Christopher A. Jones, Ælfric’s Letter to the Monks of Eynsham, Cambridge Studies in Anglo-Saxon England, 24 (Cambridge, 1998). 

XI. The Office and Breviary

Liturgy of the Hours:

Sr. Aquinata Böckmann, Bibliographia: Liturgia Horarum in Generale

W. Jardine Grisbrooke, “The Formative Period–Cathedral and Monastic Offices,” in The Study of the Liturgy, ed. Jones et al., pp. 403-20; J. W. Crichton, “The Office in the West: The Early Middle Ages”; and “The Office in the West: The Later Middle Ages,” in The Study of the Liturgy, ed. Jones et al., pp. 420-33. 

Margot E. Fassler and Rebecca A. Baltzer, The Divine Office in the Latin Middle Ages: Methodology and Source Studies, Regional Developments, Hagiography (Oxford, 2000). 

A. Elberti, La liturgia delle ore in Occidente: Storia e teologia (Rome, 1998). 

Pierre Salmon, L’Office divin au moyen âge: Histoire de la formation du bréviaire du IXe au XVIe siècle (Paris, 1967). 

Robert Taft, The Liturgy of the Hours in East and West: The Origins of the Divine Office and Its Meaning for Today (Collegeville MN, 1986). 

Jesse D. BillettThe Divine Office in Anglo-Saxon England, 597-c.1000, Henry Bradshaw Society, Subsidia 7 (Cambridge, 2014). 

M. Cheung Salisbury, The Secular Liturgical Office in Late Medieval England (Turnhout, 2015).

Andrew Hughes, Late Medieval Liturgical Offices: Resources for Electronic Research: Texts (Toronto, 1994); Sources & Chants (Toronto, 1996). .

Andrew Hughes, Late Medieval Liturgical Offices. Tools for Electronic Research. Sources and Chants (Toronto, 1996). 

Office of the Dead:

Frederick S. Paxton, “Researching Rites for the Dying and the Dead,” in Understanding Medieval Liturgy: Essays in Interpretation, ed. Gittos and Hamilton, pp. 39-56.

Michael S. Driscoll, “Death, Dying, and Burial: Liturgical Considerations from the Early Middle Ages,” The Jurist 59 (1999), 229-48. 

Vincent Owusu, “Funeral Rites in Rome and the Non-Roman West,” in Handbook for Liturgical Studies, Volume IV: Sacraments and Sacramentals, ed. Anscar J. Chupungco (Collegeville, MN, 2000), pp. 

Megan McLaughlin, Consorting with Saints: Prayer for the Dead in Early Medieval France (Ithaca, 1994). 

Frederick S. Paxton, Christianizing Death–The Creation of a Ritual Process in Early Medieval Europe (Ithaca, 1990). 

Damien Sicard, La liturgie de la mort dans l’Église latine des origines à la réforme carolingienne (Münster, 1978). 

Knud Ottosen, The Responsories and Versicles of the Latin Office of the Dead (Århus, 1993).  Cantus Planus database version.

Giles Constable, “The Commemoration of the Dead in the Early Middle Ages,” in Early Medieval Rome and the Christian West, ed. Julia M. H. Smith (Leiden, 2000), pp. 169-195.

The Breviary:

Pierre Salmon, The Breviary through the Centuries (Collegeville MN, 1962). 

Pierre Battifol, History of the Roman Breviary, trans. Atwell M. Y. Baylay (London, 1912). 

Suitbert Bäumer, Histoire du bréviaire, 2 vols. (Paris, 1905). Vol. 1; Vol. 2

Victor LeroquaisLes bréviaires. Manuscrits des bibliothèques publiques de France, 6 vols. (1934)  CANTUS Database version.

Hanns Bohatta, Bibliographie der Breviere, 1501-1850 (Leipzig, 1937). 

Robert Amiet, Missels et bréviaires imprimés. (Supplément aux catalogues de Weale et Bohatta). Propre des saints (Paris, 1990). 

Chrysogonus Waddell, The Primitive Cistercian Breviary, Spicilegium Friburgense 44 (Fribourg, 2007).

English Breviaries:

J. B. L. Tolhurst, The Monastic Breviary of Hyde Abbey, Winchester, vol. VI: Introduction to the English Monastic Breviaries, Henry Bradshaw Society, 80 (London, 1942). 

Sally Elizabeth Roper, Medieval English Benedictine Liturgy: Studies in the Formation, Structure, and Content of the Monastic Votive Office, c. 950-1540 (New York, 1993). 

William Maskell, Monumenta ritualia ecclesiæ Anglicanæ; The Occasional Offices of the Church of England according to the Old Use of Salisbury, the Prymer in English, and Other Prayers and Forms, 3 vols., 2nd ed. (Oxford, 1882). Whoops! It looks like you forgot to specify your html tag. Vol. 1; Vol. 2; Vol. 3.

E. Proctor and C. Wordsworth, ed., Breviarium ad usum insignis ecclesiae Sarum, 3 vols. (1879-86). 

S. W. Lawley, ed., Breviarium ad usum insignis Ecclesie Eboracensis, 2 vols., Surtees Society 71 (Durham, 1880-83). 

Matthew Cheung Salisbury, The Use of York: Characteristics of the Medieval Liturgical Office in York, Northwick Paper no. 113 (York, 2008). 

W. H. Frere and Langton E. G. Brown, The Hereford Breviary, 3 vols., Henry Bradshaw Society 26, 40, 46 (London, 1904-15). 

Books of Hours:

Roger S. Wieck, “The Book of Hours,” in The Liturgy of the Medieval Church, ed. Heffernan and Matter, pp.

John Harthan, Books of Hours and Their Owners (London, 1977). 

Hanns Bohatta, Bibliographie des livres d’heures (Horae B.M.V.) officia (Vienna, 1909). 

Gerhard Achten, Das christliche Gebetbuch im Mittelalter: Andachts- und Studenbücher in Handschrift und Frühdruck (Wiesbaden, 1980). 

Hans-Peter Geh und Gerhard Römer, ed., Mittelalterliche Andachtsbücher: Psalterien, Stundenbücher, Gebetbücher: Zeugnisse europäischer Frömmigkeit: eine Ausstellung der Badischen und der Württembergischen Landesbibliothek zum 91. Deutschen Katholikentag in Karlsruhe 1992: Katalog zur Ausstellung (Karlsruhe, 1992). 

Victor Leroquais, Les livres d’Heures. Manuscrits de la Bibliothèque nationale de la France, 2 vols. (1927). 

R. S. Wieck, et al., Time Sanctified: The Book of Hours in Medieval Art and Life (London, 1988). 

A Hypertext Book of Hours

XII. Some Regional Liturgies

(see also under Liturgical Books and Manuscriptst)

See Pfaff, Medieval Latin Liturgy, sect. N, “Other Liturgies,” pp. 114-20.


Dizionario di liturgia ambrosiana, ed. Marco Navoni (Milan, 1996). 

Cesare Alzati, Ambrosianum Mysterium: The Church of Milan and Its Liturgical Tradition, trans. George Guiver, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 2000). 

A. Paredi, “La liturgia di S. Ambrogio,” in Sant’Ambrogio nel XVI centenario (Milan, 1940), pp. 71-157. 

Cesare AlzatiIl lezionario della Chiesa ambrosiana: la tradizione liturgica e il rinnovamento ordo lectionum (Vatican City, 2009). 

Patrizia Carmassi, Libri liturgici e istituzioni ecclesiastiche a Milano in età medioevale: studio sulla formazione del lezionario ambrosiano, Liturgiewissenschaftliche Quelle und Forschungen 85 (Aschendorff, 2001). 

Terence Bailey,  “The Development and Chronology of the Ambrosian Sanctorale: The Evidence of the Antiphon Texts” in The Divine Office in the Latin Middle Ages, ed. Margot E. Fassler and Rebecca A. Baltzer (New York, 2000), pp. 257-77. 

Edward Godfrey Cuthbert Frederic Atchley, The Ambrosian Liiturgy: The Ordinary and Canon of the Mass according to the Rite of the Church of Milan (1909). 

Repertorio manoscritti liturgici ambrosiani


Yitzhak Hen, Culture and Religion in Merovingian Gaul A.D. 481-751 (Leiden, 1995). 

The Bobbio Missal: Liturgy and Religious Culture in Merovingian Gaul, ed. Yitzhak Hen (Cambridge, 2004). 

Els Rose, Missale Gothicum e codice Vaticano Reginensi Latino 317 editum, CCCM 159 (Turnhout, 2005). 

Els Rose, The Gothic Missal: A Gallican Sacramentary, Corpus Christianorum in Translation 27 (Turnhout, 2017).

Philippe Bernard, Transitions liturgiques en Gaule carolingienne : une traduction commentée des deux “lettres” faussement attribuées à l’évêque Germain de Paris (fin du VIIIe siècle) (Paris, 2008). 

Table of Gallican lectionaries

“Celtic” and Irish:

Yitzhak Hen, “The Nature and Character of the Early Irish Liturgy,” in L’Irlanda e gli irlandese nell’alto medioevo, Settimane di studio del Centro italiano di studi sull’alto medioevo 57 (Spoleto, 2010), pp. 353-80. 

Michael Lapidge and Richard J. Sharpe, A Bibliography of Celtic-Latin Literature 400-1200 (Dublin, 1985). 

F. E. Warren, The Liturgy and Ritual of the Celtic Church, 2nd ed. Jane Stevenson (Woodbridge, 1987). 

Michael Curran, The Antiphonary of Bangor and the Early Irish Monastic Liturgy (Blackrock, 1984). 

Peter Jeffrey, “Eastern and Western Elements in the Irish Monastic Prayer of the Hours,” in The Divine Office, ed. Fassler and Baltzer, pp. 99-146.

Mozarabic and Spanish:

Michel Gros, “Les Wisigoths et les liturgies occidentales,” in L’Europe héritière de l’Espagne wisigothique. , ed. Jacques Fontaine and Christine Pellistrandi (Madrid, 1992), pp. 125-35.

Rose Walker, Views of Transition: Liturgical Change in Medieval Spain (Toronto, 1998).

Alberto Ferreiro, The Visigoths in Spain, A.D. 418-711: A Bibliography (Leiden, 1988), pp. 225-66. Ferreiro, The Visigoths in Gaul and Iberia: A Supplemental Bibliography, 1984-2003 (Leiden, 2006).

W. S. Porter, “Early Spanish Monasticism. V,” Laudate 12 (1934), 41-52 (on the monastic Office). 

M. Randel, An Index to the Chant of the Mozarabic Rite (Princeton NJ, 1973).


Edmond Martène, De antiquis ecclesiae ritibus, 2nd ed., 4 vols. (Antwerp, 1736-38). 

André Wilmart, “Les anciens missels de la France,” Ephemerides Liturgicae 46 (1932), 235-67. 

Anne Walters Robertson, Music and Liturgy at the Abbey of Saint-Denis, 567-1567: A Survey of the Primary Sources (1984). 

Anne Walters Robertson,The Service-books of the Royal Abbey of Saint-Denis: Images of Ritual and Music in the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1991). 

Craig Wright, Music and Ceremony at Notre Dame of Paris, 500-1550 (Cambridge, 1989). 


Adolph Franz, Die Messe im deutschen Mittelalter. Beiträge zur Geschichte der Liturgie und des religiösen Volkslebens (Freiburg, 1902). 

Henry Parkes, The Making of Liturgy in the Ottonian Church: Books, Music, and Ritual in Mainz, 950-1050 (Cambridge, 2014). 

Das deutsche Kirchenlied, Abteilung II: Geistliche Gesänge des deutschen Mittelalters. Melodien und Texte handschriftlicher Überlieferung bis um 1530, ed. Max Lütolf (Kassel, 2003). 

Great Britain:

Richard W. Pfaff, The Liturgy in Medieval England: A History (Cambridge, 2009). 

Christopher Wordsworth and Henry Littlehales, The Old Service Books of the English Church (London, 1904).

See also under The Mass and Missals and The Office and the Breviary for English books.


Giacomo Baroffio, Canti delle liturgia del Ore.  Includes a Corpus Antiphonarum Italicum and Corpus Responsioriale Italicum.

Brian Møller Jensen, Medieval Liturgical Texts in Italian Manuscripts (Lewiston NY, 2006). 

Marica Susan Tacconi, Liturgy and Chant at the Cathedral of Florence: A Survey of the pre-Tridentine Sources (Tenth-Sixteenth Centuries) (PhD diss., Yale Univ., 1999).

Low Countries:

Chant behind the Dikes: The Medieval Liturgy of the Low Countries 

Papal Curia:

P.-M. Gy, “L’Unification liturgique de l’occident et la liturgie de la Curie romaine,” Revue des sciences philosophiques et théologiques 59 (1975) 601-612. 

Stephen J. P. van Dijk, ed., Sources of the Modern Roman Liturgy: The Ordinals by Haymo of Faversham and Related Documents (1243-1307), 2 vols. (Leiden, 1963).  “The documents selected represent a revision of the court liturgy … made by and for members of the Order of Friars Minor …”

Stephen J. P. van Dijk and J. Hazelden Walker, The Origins of the Modern Roman Liturgy. The Liturgy of the Papal Court and the Franciscan Order in the Thirteenth Century (Westminster MD, 1960). 

Stephen J. P. van Dijk, The Ordinal of the Papal Court from Innocent III to Boniface VIII and Related Documents (Fribourg, 1975). 

Susan Twyman, Papal Ceremonial at Rome in the Twelfth Century, Henry Bradshaw Society Subsidia 4 (London, 2002).

Marc Dykmans, Le cérémonial papal de la fin du Moyen Age à la Renaissance (Rome, 1977). 

Bernhard Schimmelpfennig, Die Zeremonienbücher der römischen Kurie im Mittelalter (Tübingen, 1973). 


Peter Jeffery, “Rome and Jerusalem: From Oral Tradition to Written Repertory in two Ancient Liturgical Centres,” in Essays on Medieval Music in Honor of David G. Hughes, ed. G. M. Boone, Isham Library Papers 4 (Cambridge MA, 1995), pp. 207-47.

Peter Jeffrey, “The Early Liturgy of Saint Peter’s and the Roman Liturgical Year,” in Old Saint Peter’s, Rome, ed. Rosamond McKitterick et al. (Cambridge, 2013), pp. 157-76.

Antoine Chavasse, La Liturgie de la Ville de Rome du Ve au VIIIe siècle (Rome, 1993). 

John F. Romano, Liturgy and Society in Early Medieval Rome (New York, 2016). 

XIII. Liturgies of the Religious Orders

Archdale A. King, Liturgies of the Religious Orders (London, 1955).

Arsène Le Carou, L’office divin chez les Frères Mineurs aus XIIIe siècle (Paris, 1928). 

Franciscus-M. Guerrini, ed., Ordinarium juxta ritum sacri ordinis Fratrum Praedicatorum (Rome, 1921). 

B. K. Lackner, “The Liturgy of Early Cîteaux,” in Studies in Medieval Cistercian History Presented to Jeremiah F. O’Sullivan, Cistercian Studies 13 (Spencer MA, 1971), pp. 1-34.

Danièle Choisselet and Placide Vernet, ed., Les “Ecclesiastica Officia” cisterciens du XIIe siècle (1989). 

James J. Boyce, Carmelite Liturgy and Spiritual Identity, Medieval Church Studies 16 (Turnhout, 2008).

Paschalis Kallenberg, Fontes Liturgiae carmelitanae. Investigatio in decreta, codices et proprium sanctorum, Textus et studia historica Carmelitana (Rome, 1962).

XIV. Jewish Liturgy

Bibliography on Jewish Liturgy

XV. The Bible in the Liturgy

Jean Daniélou, The Bible and the Liturgy (London, 1960).

E. H. van Olst, The Bible and Liturgy (Grand Rapids MI, 1991). 

Gerard Rouwhorst, “The Bible and Liturgy,” in The New Cambridge History of the Bible, Volume 1; From the Beginnings to c. 600, ed. Joachim Schaper and James Carleton Pager (Cambridge, 2013), pp.

Joseph Dyer, “The Bible in the Liturgy, c. 600-1300,” in The New Cambridge History of the Bible, Volume 2: From 600 to 1450, Richard Marsden and E. Ann Matter (Cambridge, 2012), pp. 659-79.

S. J. P. van Dijk, “The Bible in Liturgical Use,” in The Cambridge History of the Bible, Volume 2: The West from the Fathers to the Reformation, ed. G. W. H. Lampe (Cambridge, 1969), pp. 220-52. 

P.-M. Gy, “La Bible dans la liturgie au moyen âge,” in Le Moyen Age et la Bible, ed. Pierre Riché and Guy Lobrichon (Paris, 1984), pp. 543-52. 

Raymond Kottje, Studien zum Einfluß des Alten Testament auf Recht und Liturgie des frühen Mittelalters (6-8 Jahrhundert) (Bonn, 1964). 

Karl (Carolus) MarbachCarmina scriptuarum, scilicet antiphonas et responsoria ex sacro scripturae fonte in libros liturgicos sanctae Ecclesiae Romanae derivata collegit et edidit Carolus Marbach (1907; repr. Hildesheim, 1963).

Joseph Dyer, “The Psalms in Monastic Prayer,” in The Place of the Psalms in the Intellectual Culture of the Middle Ages, ed. Nancy van Duesen (Albany NY, 1999), pp. 59-89. 

Joseph Dyer, “The Singing of Psalms in the Early Medieval Office,” Speculum 64 (1989), 535-78.

P. Pietschmann, “Die nicht dem Psalter entnommenen Meßgesangstücke auf ihre Textgestalt untersucht,” Jahrbuch für Liturgiewissenschaft 12 (1932), 87-144. 


A.-G. Martimort, Les lectures liturgiques et leurs livres, Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental 64 (1992). 

Stephan Beissel, Entstehung der Perikopen des römischen Messbuches: Zur Geschichte der Evangelienbücher in der ersten Hälfte des Mittelalters (Rome, 1967), with comparative tables at pp. 157-92 and in index of pericopes at 197-211. 

A. Chavasse, Les lectionnaires romains de la messe au VIIe et au VIIIe siècle: Sources et dérivés, 2 vols. (Fribourg, 1993). 

G. Godu, “Epitres” and “Evangiles,” in Dictionnaire d’archéologie chrétienne et de liturgie 5/1, 345-344 and 852-923. 

W. H. Frere, Studies in the Early Roman Liturgy, 2: The Roman Gospel-Lectionary ; 3: The Roman Epistle-Lectionary , Alcuin Club Collections 30, 32 (London, 1934-35).

Theodor Klauser, Das römische capitulare evangeliorum, Liturgiegeschichtliche Quellen und Forschungen 28 (Münster, 1935). 

Ursula Lenker, Die Westsächsische Evangelienversion und die Perikopenordnungen im angelsächsischen England (Munich, 1997). 

A.-G. Martimort, “La lecture patristique dans la liturgie des Heures,” in Traditio et Progressio: Studi liturgici in onore Prof. Adrien Nocent OSB, Studia Anselmiana 95 (Rome, 1988), pp. 311-31. 

Th. Maertens, “L’Avent. Génése historique de ses thèmes bibliques et doctrinaux,” Mélanges des sciences religieuses 18 (1961), 47-110. 

M. O’Carroll, “The Lectionary for the Proper of the Year in the Dominican and Franciscan Rites of the Thirteenth Century,” Archivum Fratrum Praedicatorum 49 (1979), 79-103.


Michael Korhammer, Die monastischen Cantica im Mittelalter und ihre altenglischen Interlinearversionen: Studien und Textausgabe (Munich, 1976). 

XVI. Hymns

See Kaske, Medieval Christian Literary Imagery, pp. 71-79; Berlioz, Identifier sources, pp. 115-16.

Matthew Cheung Salisbury, “Hymns,” Oxford Bibliographies: Medieval Studies

John Julian, A Dictionary of Hymnology setting forth the Origin and History of Christian Hymns of All Ages and Nations (London, 1915). 

The Canterbury Dictionary of Hymnology

Hymns and Hymnody: Historical and Theological Introductions, vol. 1: From Asia to Western Europe, ed. Mark A. Lamport, Benjamin K. Forrest, and Vernon M. Whaley (Eugene OR, 2019).

Der lateinische Hymnus im Mittelalter: Überlieferung, Ästhetik, Ausstrahlung, ed. Andreas Haug, Christoph März and Lorenz Welker (Kassel, 2004). 

Susan Boynton, “Hymn (II) Monophonic Latin,” Grove Music Online.

J. Szövérffy, Latin Hymnody, Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental 55 (1989). 

Ruth Ellis Messenger, The Medieval Latin Hymn (Washington D.C., 1953). 

Susan Boynton, “Recent Research on Latin Hymns,” Plainsong and Medieval Music, 3 (1994), 103-12.

Guido Maria Dreves and Clemens Blume, ed., Analecta Hymnica medii aevi (Leipzig, 1886-1920). Supplemented by a Register, 3 vols. (Bern, 1978).  Volumes on Hathi Trust. Volumes on Internet Archive.

W. Bulst, ed., Hymni Latini Antiquiores lxxv Psalmi iii (Heidelberg, 1956). 

Jacques Fontaine, ed. Ambroise de Milan. Hymnes

James Mearns, Early Latin Hymnaries: An Index of Hymns in Hymnaries before 1100 (Cambridge, 1913).

Ulysse ChevalierRepertorium hymnologicum. Catalogue des chants, hymnes, proses, sequences, tropes en usage dans l’Eglise latine depuis les origines jusqu’a nos jours (Brussels, 1920-21).  Supplemented by C. BlumeRepertorium Repertorii. Kritischer Wegweiser durch U. Chevaliers “Repertorium Hymnologicum”. . . (Leipzig, 1901).  and now being superceded by the following.

J. Szövérffy, Repertorium hymnologicum novum (Berlin, 1983- ). 

J. Szövérffy, Die Annalen der lateinischen Hymnendichtung, 2 vols. (Berlin, 1964-65). 

A. Martimort, “La place des hymnes à l’office dans les liturgies d’Occident,” in Studi ambrosiani in onore di Mons. Pietro Borella, ed. C. Alzati and E. Majo (Milan, 1982), pp. 138-53.

Ruth E. Messenger, “Medieval Processional Hymns before 1100,” Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 80 (1949), 375-92.

Ruth E. Messenger, “Processional Hymnody in the Later Middle Ages,” Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 81 (1950), 185-99.

J. Szövérffy, A Guide to Byzantine Hymnography: A Classified Bibliography of Texts and Studies, 2 vols. (Brookline, MA, 1978). 

J. SzövérffyA Mirror of Medieval Culture: Saint Peter Hymns of the Middle Ages, Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences 42 (1961). 

Helmut Gneuss, Hymnar und Hymnen im englischen Mittelalter (Tübingen, 1968). 

Inge B. Milfull, The Hymns of the Anglo-Saxon Church: A Study and Edition of the ‘Durham Hymnal’, Cambridge Studies in Anglo-Saxon England 17 (Cambridge, 1996). 

XVII. Liturgical Chant

David Hiley, Chant Bibliography I.

G.M. Paucker, P. Jeffery and T. Kohlhase, Liturgical Chant Bibliography II. Incorporates Peter Jeffery, “Liturgical Chant Bibliography,” Plainsong & Medieval Music 1 (1992) 175-96; 2 (1993) 169-79; 3 (1994) 195-206; 4 (1995) 193-202; 5 (1996) 201-10.

Günther Michael Paucker, “Liturgical Chant Bibliography,” in Plainsong & Medieval Music 6 (1997) to 26 (2017).

Répertoire Internationale des Sources Musicales

Comparatio des chants liturgiques médiévaux

David Hiley, ed., Die Erschliessung der Quellen der mittelalterlichen liturgischen Gesangs (Wiesbaden, 2005). 

An Index of Gregorian Chant, comp. John R. Bryden and David Grattan Hughes: Vol. I: Alphabetical Index; Vol. II: Thematic Index (Cambridge MA, 1969). 

Michel Huglo, Les livres de chant liturgique, Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental 52 (Turnhout, 1988). 

L. Crocker and D. Hiley, ed., The New Oxford History of Music, vol. 2: The Early Middle Ages to 1300 (Oxford, 1990). 

Paléographie musicale: Les principaux manuscrits de chant grégorien, ambrosien, mozarabe, gallican, publiés en fac-similés phototypiques (Solesmes, 1889- ). 

Musicologie médiévale. Resources for Medieval Musicology and Liturgy

Dominique Gatté, Répertoire des manuscrits médiévaux notées

Liturgie et musique (IXe–XIVe s.), Cahiers de Fanjeaux 17 (Toulouse, 1982).  

Western Plainchant in the First Millennium: Studies in the Medieval Liturgy and Its Music, ed. Sean Gallagher et al. (2006).

Christoph Münch, Musikzeugnisse der Reichsabtei Lorsch: Eine Untersuchung der musikalischen Handschriften in der Bibliotheca Palatina in der Vatikanischen Bibliothek.

Musikalische Quellen des Mittelalters in der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek

Catalogue des manuscrits notés du Moyen Age conservés dans les bibliothèques publiques de France.

The Kenneth Levy Microfilm Archive of Medieval Liturgical Chant

Chant Databases:

On the following CANTUS databases see Alison Altstatt, “Digital and Multimedia Scholarship,” Journal of the American Musicological Society 67 (Spring 2014), 267-85. 

CANTUS PLANUS (David Hiley, Regensburg). “Two types of data are offered here.
– “Datafiles (read or download)” are text or database files with lists of chant incipits (Herbert’s AMS, Chartres missal, Moosburg gradual, York gradual, feasts of the Sanctorale in Hesbert’s CAO, hymns and their melodies), lists of sources (Le Graduel Romain, CAO vol. 5), and full chant texts (sequences in AH, antiphons and responsories in CAO vols. 3 and 4).
– “Databases (interactive)” are files with facilities for searching for texts or musical incipits. They include two chant bibliographies, catalogues of sources in British, German and French libraries, a list of the sources microfilmed for the Bruno Stäblein Archiv and used in studies based on the Archiv. A special project is devoted to sources from Augsburg, and there is information on sources from Aquileia and Regensburg. There is a catalogue of chant incipits of saint’s offices (historiae). There are search facilities for the series of responsories for Advent and for the Office of the Dead, and for series of alleluias of the post-Pentecost season and the Easter season (the latter in preparation), together with statistical computation of the results. The office chant texts in Hesbert’s CAO vol. 3 and 4 can be searched. Bannister’s “Monumenti vaticani di paleografia musicale latina” has been scanned and formatted to enable searches for notations and manuscript information.”

CANTUS: A Database for Latin Ecclesiastical Chant. “”CANTUS is a database that assembles indices of the Latin ecclesiastical chants found in early manuscript and printed sources for the liturgical Office, such as antiphoners and breviaries. This digital archive benefits scholars in a variety of fields including ecclesiastical monody, the sacred polyphony of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, liturgical drama, hagiography, paleography, philology, ecclesiastical history and the history of monasticism, as well as performers of this early music (including church musicians and directors of liturgy), librarians and archivists. The manuscript inventories are available at no cost. They are fully searchable by textual incipit, keywords, saints’ names or liturgical occasion, and “chant identification numbers” (drawn from standard chant research resources).”

See also the CANTUS analysis site.  “Search the complete set of CANTUS files for some text fragment, e.g. a CAO number or a chant incipit. The results will be presented in geographical order”; or search the full-text database“; cross-reference verse comparison; cross-reference mode comparison“.  Also allows search of the database Late Medieval Liturgical Offices by full-text or by feast.

Global Chant Database. “This is a searchable database of plainchant melodies and texts included in medieval sources and new editions. It serves as a simple tool for searching information on Gregorian chant and other medieval monody including sacred songs. At this time the database contains almost 25.000 records of chant incipits that provide information about text, melody, genre, modus and concordances in new editions and other on-line databases. Some of the records include also hypertext links to facsimiles where a particular chant can be found.”

The CANTUS Index. “Cantus Index is a catalogue of chant texts and melodies for Office and Mass. Multiple online medieval music databases have been connected together through unique “Cantus ID numbers”. Chant texts and melodies can be searched on this Cantus Index website, and matches in any of the partner databases will be returned.”

La Trobe University Library Medieval Music Database.  “Its current scope covers all of the music of the fourteenth century and all liturgical chant currently electronically indexed, adding to these links transcriptions with modern music notation (where melodic information is available),original manuscripts where possible and links to the electronic editions themselves.”  Closed in 2007 but still functional.  Can be browsed by Text, Composer, Genre, Manuscript, Complete Manuscripts,  or Liturgical Feast, and searched by Text, Melody, or Descriptor.

Late Medieval Liturgical Offices


Antiphons and Responsaries:

Antiphonale synoptic / graduale synopticum. Die Offiziumsantiphonen und das Messproprium des Gregorianischen Chorals  The same website is planned to host a Thesaurus Gregorianus database. See M. Kaiser and G. Wais, “The “Thesaurus Gregorianus”: An Internet Database of Gregorian Office Antiphons,” in Ancient Worlds in Digital Culture, ed. Claire Clivaz, Paul Dilley and David Hamidović (Leiden, 2018), pp. 148-79.

Antiphonaria: Studien zu Quellen und Gesängen des mittelalterlichen Offiziums, ed. David Hiley, Regensburger Studien zur Musikgeschichte 7 (Tutzing, 2009). 

R.-J. Hesbert, ed., Antiphonale Missarum sextuplex; édité par René-Jean Hesbert … D’après le graduel de Monza et les antiphonaires de Rheinau, de Mont-Blandin, de Compiègne, de Corbie et de Senlis (Brussels, 1935).

R.-J. Hesbert, ed., Corpus antiphonalium officii, 6 vols. (Rome, 1963-1979).  CAO Search Facility.

Knud Ottosen, L’antiphonaire Latin au moyen-age: réorganisation des séries de répons de l’Avent classés par R.-J. Hesbert (Rome, 1986). 

Corpus Antiphonarium Officii Ecclesiarum Centralis Europae

Joan Halmo, Antiphons for paschal triduum-Easter in the Medieval Office (Ottawa, 1995). 

Walter Howard Frere, ed. Antiphonale Sarisburiense (London, 1901-24). 

Antiphoners and Breviaries (Cantus Planus).

Antiphon Texts (Cantus Planus).

Post-Pentecost Cantica Antiphons (Cantus Planus).

Corpus antiphonarum italicum

Responsory Texts (Cantus Planus).

Michel HugloLes Tonaires: Inventaire, Analyse, Comparaison, Publications de la Société française de musicologie, 2 (Paris, 1971). 


Le Graduel Romain, II: Les Sources (Solesmes, 1957). 

Graduale Triplex: The Roman Gradual With the Addition of Neums from Ancient Manuscripts (Solesmes, 1979). 

D. Fournier, Concordance textuelle du “Graduale Romanum Triplex” et des versets de l’“Offertoriale Triplex” (Solesmes, 1996). 

G. Milanese, Concordantia et instrumenta lexicographica ad “Graduale Romanum” pertinentia (Gênes-Savone, 1996). 

Graduals and Noted Missals (Cantus Planus).

Tropes and Sequences:

Corpus Troporum, ed. Ritva Maria Jonsson, Studia Latina Stockholmensia (Stockholm, 1975- ).  CT I = Corpus Troporum I : Tropes du propre de la messe 1. Cycle de Noël, éd Ritva Jonsson et al., SLS 21 (1975); CT II = Corpus Troporum II : Prosules de la messe 1. Tropes de l’alléluia, éd Olof Marcusson, SLS 22 (1976); CT III = Corpus Troporum III : Tropes du propre de la messe 2. Cycle de Pâques. Édition critique des textes par Gunilla Björkvall, Gunilla Iversen, Ritva Jonsson, SLS 25 (1982); CT IV = Corpus Troporum IV : Tropes de l’Agnus Dei. Edition critique suivie d’une étude analytique par Gunilla Iversen, SLS 26 (1980); CT V = Corpus Troporum V : Les deux tropaires d’Apt, mss. 17 et 18. Inventaire analytique des mss. et édition des textes uniques par Gunilla Björkvall, SLS 32 (1986); CT VI = Corpus Troporum VI : Prosules de la messe 2. Les prosules limousines de Wolfenbüttel. Édition critique des prosules d’alléluia du ms.Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek Cod.Guelf. 79 Gud.Lat. par Eva Odelman, SLS 31 (1986); CT VII = Corpus Troporum VII : Tropes de l’ordinaire de la messe. Tropes du Sanctus. Introduction et édition critique par Gunilla Iversen. SLS 34,(1990); CT VIII = Corpus Troporum VIII : Tropes for the Proper of the Mass 3. The Tropes for the Dedication of a Church. Edition of Text and Music by Bodil Asketorp (in preparation); CT IX = Corpus Troporum IX : Tropes for the Proper of the Mass 4. The Feasts of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Edited with an Introduction and Commentary by Ann-Katrin Andrews Johansson (1998); CT XI = Corpus Troporum XI : Prosules de la messe 3. Prosules de l’offertoire. Édition des textes par Gunilla Björkvall (2009); CT XII = Corpus Troporum, XII : Les tropes du Gloria in excelsis. Édition par Gunilla Iversen (in preparation).

Concordance to the Corpus Troporum

Heinrich Husmann, Tropen- und Sequenzenhandschriften, Répertoire International des  Sources Musicales  B/V/1 (Munich, 1964).

Richard Crocker, The Early Medieval Sequence (Berkeley, 1977). 

Margot Fassler, Gothic Song: Victorine Sequences and Augustinian Reform in Twelfth-Century Paris, 2nd ed. (Notre Dame, 2011). 

Margot Fassler, “The Meaning of Entrance: Liturgical Commentaries and the Introit Tropes,” Reflections on the Sacred: A Musicological Perspective (New Haven, 1994), 8-18. 

Eugenio Costa, Tropes et séquences dans le cadre de la vie liturgique au Moyen Age (Rome, 1979). 

Sequence Texts from Analecta Hymnica (Cantus Planus).

XVIII. Liturgical Commentary


“Medieval Liturgists,” in Vogel, Medieval Liturgy, pp.12-17; also Kaske, Medieval Christian Literary Imagery, pp. 64-67.

Roger Reynolds, “Treatises on the Liturgy,” Dictionary of the Middle Ages VII, 624-33. 

Roger Reynolds, “Guillaume Durand parmi les théologiens médiévaux de la liturgie,” in Guillaume Durand, Évèque de Mende (v. 1230-1296). Canoniste, liturgiste et homme politique, ed. Pierre-Marie Gy (Paris, 1992), pp. 155-68. 

M. M. Schaefer, “Latin Mass Commentaries from the Ninth through the Twelfth Centuries: Chronology and Theology,” in Fountain of Life, ed. Gerard Austin (Washington, 1991), pp. 35-49.

Gary Macy, “Commentaries on the Mass during the Early Scholastic Period,” in Medieval Liturgy: A Book of Essays, ed. L. Larson-Miller, pp. 25-59. Includes “A Tentative List of Commentaries on the Mass Written 1060-1225.” 

Erika Kihlman, Expositiones Sequentiarum: Medieval Sequence Commentaries and Prologues. Editions with Introductions, Studia Latin Stockholmensia 53 (Stockholm, 2006). 

René Bornert, Les commentaires byzantins de la divine liturgie du VIIe au XVe siecle (Paris, 1966).

Some major commentaries:

Sancti Isidori episcopi hispalensis De ecclesiasticis officiis, ed. Christopher M. Lawson, CCSL 113 (Turnhout, 1989). 

Expositio antiquae liturgiae gallicanae, ed. E. C. Ratcliffe, Henry Bradshaw Society, 98 (London, 1971). 

A. L. Harting-Correa, Walahfrid Strabo’s libellus de exordiis et incrementis quarundam in observationibus ecclesiasticis rerum: A Translation and Liturgical Commentary (Leiden, 1996). 

Liber Quare, ed. Georges Polycarpe Götz, CCCM 60 (Turnhout, 1983).

Rupertus Tuitiensis, Liber de divinis officiis, ed. Raban Haacke, CCCM 7 (Turnhout, 1967).

Amalarii episcopi Opera liturgica omnia, ed. J. M. Hanssens, 3 vols., Studi e testi, 138-140 (Vatican City, 1948-50). 

A Lost Work by Amalarius of Metz: Interpolations in Salisbury, Cathedral Library MS 154, ed. Christopher Jones, Henry Bradshaw Society, Subsidia, 2 (Woodbridge, 2001). 

Alamar of Metz. On the Liturgy. (Liber officialis or De ecclesiastico officio), 2 vols, ed. and trans. E. Knibbs, Dumbarton Oaks Medieval Library 35-36 (Cambridge MA, 2014).

W. Steck, Der Liturgiker Amalarius–Eine quellenkritische Untersuchungen zu Leben und Werke eines Theologen der Karolingerzeit (St. Ottilien, 2000). 

Rupert of Deutz, Liber de divinis officiis, CCCM 7 (Turnhout). 

Guillelmi Duranti Rationale divinorum officiorum, ed. A. Davril and T. M. Thibodeau, CCCM 140 (Turnhout, 1995- ). 

Guillaume Durand, Évêque de Mende (v. 1230-1296). Canoniste, liturgiste et homme politique, ed. P.-M. Gy (Paris, 1992). 

Catholic Ceremonies and Explanation of the Ecclesiastical Year. From the French of the Abbé Durand (New York, 1986). 

Symbolism of Churches and Church Ornaments: A Translation of the First Book of the Rationale divinorum officiorum, trans. John Mason Neale and Benjamin Webb (Leeds, 1843). 

Kirstin Faupel-Drevs, Von rechten Gebrauch der Bilder im liturgischen Raum: Mittelalterliche Funktionsbestimmungen bildender Kunst im Rationale divinorum officiorum der Durandus von Mende (1230/1-1296) (Boston, 1999). 

Iohannis Beleth Summa de ecclesiasticis officiis, ed. Heriberto Douteil, CCCM 41-41A (Turnhout, 1976). 

Magistri Guillelmi Autissiodorensis Summa de officiis ecclesiasticis: Kritisch-digitale Erstausgabe

For a fuller list of liturgical commentaries see Vogel, Medieval Liturgy, pp 10-13, and Kaske, Medieval Christian Literary Imagery, pp. 64-67.

XIX. Liturgical Themes and Themes in the Liturgy

See also sect. VII on Liturgical Latin and Liturgical Formulae, esp. the works by Blaise and Manz.

Abel:  John Hennig, “Abel’s Place in the Liturgy,” Theological Studies 7 (1946), 126‑41. 

Angels: Erik Peterson,” The Angels and the Liturgy: The Status and Significance of the Holy Angels in Worship, trans. Ronald Walls (New York, 1964); Ellen Muehlberger, Angels in Late Ancient Christianity (Oxford, 1913). 

Apostles: Els Rose, Ritual Memory: The Apocryphal Acts and Liturgical Commemoration in the Early Medieval West (c. 500-1215), Mittellateinische Studien und Texte 40 (Leiden, 2009). 

Despicere mundum:  Daniel G. Van Slyke, “Despicere mundum et terrena: A Spiritual and Liturgical Motif in the Missale Romanum,” Usus Antiquior 1.1 (2010), 59-81. 

Immaculate Conception: C. A. Bouman,“The Immaculate Conception in the Liturgy,” in The Dogma of the Immaculate Conception, ed. E. D. O’Connor (Notre Dame, 1958), pp. 118-29.

Original Sin:  G. M. LukkenOriginal Sin in the Roman Liturgy: Research Into the Theology of Original Sin in the Roman Sacramentaria and the Early Baptismal Liturgy (Leiden, 1973). 

Refrigerium:  A. Stuiber, Refrigerium interim, Theophania 11 (Bonn, 1957). 

Sacrum commercium:  M. F. Herz, Sacrum Commercium: Eine begriffsgeschichtliche Studie zur Theologie der römischen Liturgiesprache (Munich, 1958). 

Performance:  Carol Symes, “Liturgical Texts and Performance Practices,” in Understanding Medieval Liturgy, ed. Gittos and Hamiltion, pp. 239-67.

Time: Margot Fassler, “The Liturgical Framework of Time and the Representation of History,” in Representing History, 900-1300: Art, Music, History, ed. Robert Maxwell (Philadelphia, 2010), pp 149-71. 

XX. Liturgical Furnishings and Vestments; Colors; Gestures

Joseph Braun, Der christliche altar in seiner geschichtlichen Entwicklung, 2 vols. (Munich, 1924).

Joseph Braun, Das christliche Altargerät in seinem Sein und in seiner Entwicklung (Munich, 1932). 

Joseph Braun, Die liturgische Gewandung im Occident und Orient nach Ursprung und Entwicklung, Verwendung und Symbolik (Freiburg i.B. 1907)

Patricia Dirsztay, Church Furnishings: A NADFAS Guide (London, 1978). 

Liturgische Geräte, Kreuze und Reliquiare der christlichen Kirchen: Systematisches Fachwörterbuch, Glossarium Artis 2 (Munich, 1982).  ARR. The indices of Latin, German, and French terms can be used to determine the equivalents in these languages for English terms to facilitate reference in the standard German and French ecclesiastical encyclopedias.

Paramente und liturgische Bücher der christlichen Kirchen: Systematisches Fachwörterbuch, Glossarium artis 4 (Paris, 1982). 

Joël Perrin and Sandra Vasco Rocca, Thesaurus des objets religieux/Thesaurus of Religious Objects: Furniture, Objects, Linen, Clothing and Musical Instruments of the Roman Catholic Faith (Paris, 1999). 

Fr. Bock, Geschichte der liturgischen Gewänder des Mittelalters (Bonn, 1859-71). 

Missa Mediaevalis: Realien.  With section “Altar”; “Liturgische Geräte”; and “Paramente.”


Kaske, Medieval Christian Literary Imagery, pp. 177-78.  Add:

Rudolf Suntrup, Liturgische Farben im Kontext der mittelalterlichen Farbendeutung


Rudolf Suntrup, Die Bedeutung der liturgischen Gebärden und Bewegungen in lateinischen und deutschen Auslegungen des 9. bis 13. Jahrhunderts (Munich, 1978). 

Michael Philip Penn, Kissing Christians: Ritual and Community in the Late Ancient Church (Philadelphia, 2005). 

XXI. Liturgy and Church Architecture

Clemens Koch, Auswahlbibliographie zu Liturgie und Bildender Kunst/Architektur im Mittelalter

Allen Doig, Liturgy and Architecture from the Early Church to the Middle Ages (Surrey, 2008).

Sible de Blaauw, “Architecture and Liturgy in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages: Traditions and Trends in Modern Scholarship,” Archiv für Liturgiewissenschaft 32 (1991), 1-34.

Heiliger Raum: Architektur, Kunst und Liturgie in mittelalterlichen Kathedralen und Stiftskirchen, ed. Franz Kohlschein and Peter Wünsche (Münster, 1998).

Miriam Czock, Gottes Haus: Untersuchungen zur Kirche als heiligem Raum von der Spätantike bis ins Frühmittelalter, Millennium-Studien / Millennium Studies 38 (Berlin, 2012).

Carolyn Marino Malone, “Texts and Performance: Architecture as Evidence for Liturgical Performance,” in Understanding Medieval Liturgy: Essays in Interpretation, ed. Gittos and Hamilton, pp. 207-38.

Elizabeth C. Parker, “Architecture as Liturgical Setting”; Nancy Spatz, “Church Porches and the Liturgy in Twelfth-Century Rome”; in The Liturgy of the Medieval Church, ed. Heffernan and Matter, pp.

Günter Bandmann, Mittelalterliche Architektur als Bedeutungsträger, 7th ed. (Berlin, 1981). 

Louis Bouyer, Liturgy and Architecture (Notre Dame, 1967). 

Carol Heitz, Recherches sur les rapports entre architecture et liturgie à l’époque carolingienne (Paris, 1963). 

Klaus Gamber, Liturgie und Kirchenbau: Studien zur Geschichte d. Messfeier u. d. Gotteshauses in d. Frühzeit, Studia patristica et liturgica fasc. 6 (Regensburg, 1976).

Klaus Gamber, Sancta sanctorum: Studien zur liturgischen Ausstattung der Kirche, vor allem des Altarraums, Studia patristica et liturgica fasc. 10 (Regensburg, 1981). 

Joseph Sauer, Symbolik des Kirchengebäudes und seiner Ausstattung in der Auffassung des Mittelalters: mit Berücksichtigung von Honorius Augustodunesis Sicardus und Durandus, 2nd ed. (Münster, 1964). 

Beth Williamson, “Altarpieces, Liturgy, and Devotion,” Speculum 79 (2004), 341-406.

Helen B. Gittos, Liturgy, Architecture, and Sacred Places in Anglo-Saxon England, Medieval History and Archaeology (Oxford, 2013).

XXII. The Sacraments


Maxsimilijan Žitnik, Sacramenta: Bibliographia Internationalis, 7 vols. (Rome, 1999-2002). Vols. 5-7 (2002) are a continuation of vols. 1-4 (1999).  Vols. 4 and 7 consist of systematic subject, biblical, alphabetical subject, and name indices. Specific sacraments in the systematic subject indices are divided by topic, each with an assigned number; thus in vol. 7 the listing “Eucharistia” is divided into 474 sub-topics (e.g., 284: epiclesis), and is followed by an numerical index of entries in the alphabetical bibliography vols. 5-6.

General Studies:

The Oxford Handbook of Sacramental Theology, ed. Hans Boersma and Matthew Levering (Oxford, 2015). Parts II and III cover patristic and medieval periods respectively.

Martin R. Dudley, “Sacramental Liturgies in the Middle Ages,” in The Liturgy of the Medieval Church, ed. Heffernan and Matter, pp. 215-43.

Sacraments and Sacramentals, ed. Anscar J. Chupungco, Handbook for Liturgical Studies, 4 (Collegeville, MN, 2000). 

Artur Landgraf, Dogmengeschichte der Frühscholastik, vol. 3: Die Lehre von den Sakramenten (Regensburg, 1954). 

Ann Eljenholm Nichols, Seeable Signs: The Iconography of the Seven Sacraments, 1350-1544 (Rochester, 1994). 

Fundamental for the later Middle Ages is Hugh of St. Victor, De sacramentis (PL 176), trans. Roy J. Deferrari, Hugh of St. Victor on the Christian Sacraments (Cambridge, MA, 1951). 


Maxwell E. Johnson, The Rites of Christian Initiation: Their Evolution and Interpretation, 2nd ed. (Collegeville MN, 2014).

E. C. WhitakerDocuments of the Baptismal Liturgy, 3rd ed. by Maxwell E. Johnson, Alcuin Club Collections 79 (London, 2003).

Brian D. Spinks, Early and Medieval Rituals and Theologies of Baptism from the New Testament to the Council of Trent (Aldershot, 2006). 

Adrian Nocent, “Christian Initiation during the First Four Centuries”; “Christian Initiation in the Roman Church from the Fifth Century until Vatican II,” in Handbook for Liturgical Studies, Volume IV: Sacraments and Sacramentals, ed. Chupungco, pp.

Peter Cramer, Baptism and Change in the Early Middle Ages, c. 200-c. 1150 (Cambridge, 1993). 

J. D. C. Fisher, Christian Initiation: Baptism in the Medieval West (London, 1965). 

Susan Keefe, Water and Word: Baptism and the Education of the Clergy in the Carolingian Empire, 2 vols. (Notre Dame, 2002). 

H. A. Kelly, The Devil at Baptism: Ritual, Theology, and Drama (Ithaca, 1985). 

Jean-Paul Bouhot, “Le baptême et sa signification,” in Segni e riti ne lla Chiesa altomedievale occidentale, Settimane di studio del Centra italiano di studi sull’alto medioevo 33 (Spoleto, 1987), pp. 251-67.


F. J. Dölger, Das Sakarment der Firmung historisch-dogmatisch dargestellt (Vienna, 1906)

Heinrich Weisweiler, “Das Sakrament der Firmung in den systematischen Werken der ersten Frühscholastik,” Scholastik 8 (1933), 481-523. 

Bernhardt Welte, Die postbaptismale Salbung, ihr symbolischer Gehalt und ihre sakramentale Zugehörigkeit nach den Zeugnissen der alten Kirche (Freiburg, 1939).

M. K. O’Doherty, The Scholastic Teaching on the Sacrament of Confirmation, PhD diss., Catholic Univ. of America (Washington, D.C. 1949). 

“La Confirmation” (special issue), La Maison-Dieu 54 (1958). 

J. D. C. Fisher, Confirmation Then and Now (London, 1978). 


A Companion to the Eucharist in the Middle Ages, ed. Ian Levy, Gary Macy, Kristen Van Ausdall (Leiden, 2012).

Bibliographia Eucharistica

Pratiques de l’eucharistie dans les églises d’Orient et d’Occident (Antiquité et Moyen Âge): Les réceptions, 2 vols., ed. N. Bériou, B. Caseau, and D. Rivaux (Turnhout, 2009). 

Peter Browe, Die Eucharistie im Mittelalter: Liturgiehistorische Forschungen in Kulturwissenschaftlicher Absicht, 6th ed. (Berlin, 2011). 

Henri de Lubac, Corpus Mysticum: l’eucharistie et l’Église au Moyen âge, 2nd ed. (Paris, 1949). 

Edouard DumoutetCorpus Domini [microform]: aux sources de la piété eucharistique médiévale (Paris, 1942). 

Gary Macy, The Theologies of the Eucharist in the Early Scholastic Period: A Study of the Salvific Function of the Sacrament according to the Theologians, c. 1080-1220 (Oxford, 1984). 

Enrico Mazza, The Celebration of the Eucharist: The Origin of the Rite and the Development of its Interpretation, trans. M. J. O’Connell (Collegeville, MN, 1999). 

Elizabeth Saxon, The Eucharist in Romanesque France: Iconography and Theology (Woodbridge, 2006). Includes a chapter on Mass commentaries.

Miri Rubin, Corpus Christi: The Eucharist in Late Medieval Culture (Cambridge, 1991). 

Jean Leclercq, “Eucharistic Celebrations without Priests in the Middle Ages,” Worship 55 (1981), 160-68. 

See also section IX. above.


Antonio Santantoni, “Orders and Ministries in the First Four Centuries”; “Ordination and Ministries in the West”; in Handbook for Liturgical Studies, Volume IV: Sacraments and Sacramentals, ed. Chupungco, pp.

Michelle M. Sauer, “Penitentials and Confessionals,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 1968-79.

P. F. Bradshaw, Ordination Rites of the Ancient Churches of East and West (New York, 1990). 

Paul Bradshaw, “Medieval Ordinations,” in The Study of the Liturgy, ed. Jones et al., pp. 369-79.

P.-M. Gy, “Les anciennes prières d’ordination,” La Maison Dieu 138 (1979), 109-19. 

Gary Macy, A History of Women and Ordination (Lanham, Md., 2002- ). 

Confession and Penance:

Cyrille Vogel, Les libri paenitentiales, Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental 27 (1978). 

Cyrille Vogel, Le Pécheur et la pénitence dans l’église ancienne (Paris, 1982). 

Confession and Absolution, ed. Martin Dudley and Geoffrey Rowell (Collegeville, MN, 1990). 

L’Aveu, Antiquité et Moyen-Age: actes de la table ronde (Rome, 1986). 

Henry Charles Lea, A History of Auricular Confession and Indulgences in the Latin Church, 3 vols. (Philadelphia, 1896). 

Martin Ohst, Pflichtbeichte: Untersuchungen zum Busswesen im hohen und späten Mittelalter (Tübingen, 1995). 

Sarah Hamiltion, The Practice of Penance, 900-1050 (Rochester, NY, 2001). 

Paul Anciaux, La théologie du Sacrement de Pénitence au XIIe siècle (Louvain, 1949). 

Mary C. Mansfield, The Humiliation of Sinners: Public Penance in Thirteenth-century France (Ithaca, 1995). 

Gérard Gilles Meersseman, Dossier de l’ordre de la pénitence au XIIIe siècle (Fribourg, 1961). 

John T. McNeill and Helena M. Gamer, Medieval Handbooks of Penance: A translation of the Principal Libri poenitentiales and Selections from Related Documents (New York, 1938; rpt. 1965). 

J. Schmitz, Die Bussbücher und die Bussdisciplin der Kirche nach handscriftlichen Quellen dargestellt (Graz, 1958). 

F. W. H. Wasserschleben, Die Bussordnungen der abendländischen Kirche (Halle, 1851). 

Extreme Unction:

Stefano Parenti, “Anointing of the Sick during the First Four Centuries”; Phillippe Rouillard, “Anointing of the Sick in the West”; in Handbook for Liturgical Studies, Volume IV: Sacraments and Sacramentals, ed. Chupungco, pp.

Martin R. Dudley, “Holy Joys in Store: Oils and Anointing in the Catholic Church,” in The Oil of Gladness, ed. Martin Dudley and Geoffrey Rowell (Collegeville, MN, 1993), pp. 113-33. 

Bernhard Poschmann, Penance and the Anointing of the Sick (Freiburg, 1964). 

Heinrich Weisweiler, “Das Sakrament der Letzten Ölung in den systematischen Werken der ersten Fruhscholastik,” Scholastik 8 (1932). 


Philip Lyndon Reynolds, How Marriage Became One of the Sacraments: The Sacramental Theology of Marriage from Its Medieval Origins to the Council of Trent (Cambridge, 2016).

Philip Lyndon Reynolds, Marriage in the Western Church: The Christianization of Marriage During the Patristic and Early Medieval Periods, Supplements to Vigiliae Christianae 24 (Leiden, 2001). 

Philip Lyndon Reynolds, “When Medieval Theologians Talked About Marriage, What Were They Really Talking About?” in Law and Marriage in Medieval and Early Modern Times: Proceedings of the Eighth Carlsberg Academy Conference on Medieval Legal History 2011 (Copenhagen, 2012), pp. 11-42.

Adrian Nocent, “The Christian Rite of Marriage in the West,” in Handbook for Liturgical Studies, Volume IV: Sacraments and Sacramentals, ed. Chupungco, pp.

Kenneth W. Stevenson, Nuptial Blessing: A Study of Christian Marriage Rites (London, 1982). 

Korbinian Ritzer, Brauchtum der Eheschliessung in den christlichen Kirchen bis ersten Jahrtausend (1962). 

Cyrille Vogel, “Les rites de la célébration du mariage: leur signification dans la formation du lien durant le haut Moyen Age” in Il matrimonio nella società altomedievale (Settimane di Studio del Centro Italiano di Studi sull’Alto Medioevo 24 (Spoleto, 1977), I, 397-465. 

XXIII. Other Rites

Dedication and Consecration of a Church:

Mises en scène et mémoires de la consécration de l’Eglise dans l’Occident médiéval, ed. Didier Méhu (Turnhout, 2007). 

Mette Birkedal Bruun and Louis I. Hamilton, “Rites for Dedicating Churches,” in Understanding Medieval Liturgy: Essays in Interpretation, ed. Gittos and Hamilton, pp. 177-204.

Brian Repsher, The Rite of Church Dedication in the Early Medieval Era (Lewiston 1998).

“Das Haus Gottes, das seid ihr selbst”: Mittelalterliches und barockes Kirchenverständnis im Spiegel der Kirchweihe, ed. Ralf M. W. Stammberger, Annekatrin Warnke, and Claudia Sticher (Berlin, 2006).

Dana M. Polanichka, “Transforming Space (Per)Forming Community: Church Consecration in Carolingian Europe,” Viator 43 (2012), 79-98.

Thomas D. Kozachek, “The Repertory of Chant for Dedicating Churches in the Middle Ages: Music, Liturgy, & Ritual” (Ph.D. diss., Harvard University, 1995).

Louis I. Hamilton, “To Consecrate the Church: Ecclesiastical Reform and the Dedication of Churches,” in Reforming the Church Before Modernity: Patterns, Problems and Approaches, ed. Christo­ pher M. Bellitto and Louis I. Hamilton (Aldershot, 2005), pp. 105-37.


Elizabeth Vodola, Excommunication in the Middle Ages (Berkeley, 1986). 

Christian Jaser, Ecclesia maledicens. Rituelle und zeremonielle Exokumminkationsformen im Mittelalter (Tübingen, 2013). 

Paul Töbelmann, “Excommunication in the Middle Ages: A Meta-Ritual and the Many Faces of its Efficacy,” in The Problem of Ritual Efficacy, ed. William Sax, Johannes Quack, and Jan Weinhold (Oxford, 2010), pp. 93-112.

Roger E. Reynolds, “Rites of Separation and Reconciliation in the Early Middle Ages,” in Segni e Riti nella Chiesa Altomedievale Occidentale, Spoleto 11–17 aprile 1985, Settimane di studio del Centro italiano di studi sull’alto medioevo 33 (Spoleto, 1987), 405-33.

Sarah Hamilton, “Interpreting Diversity: Excommunication Rites in the 10th and 11th Centuries,” in Understanding Medieval Liturgy: Essays in Interpretation, ed. Gittos and Hamilton, pp. 125-58.

Genevieve Steele Edwards, “Ritual Excommunication in Medieval France and England, 900-1200” (unpubl. PhD diss., Stanford, Univ., 1997).

Véronique Beaulande, Le malheur d’être exclu? Excommunication, réconciliation et societé à la fin du Moyen Âge (Paris, 2006).


Florence Chave-Mahir, L’exorcisme des possédés dans l’Eglise d’occident (Xe-XIVe siècle) (Turnhout, 2011). 

Florence Chave-Mahir, “Medieval Exorcism: Liturgical and Hagiographical Sources,” in Understanding Medieval Liturgy: Essays in Interpretation, ed. Gittos and Hamilton, pp. 159-76.

Charles D. Wright:
last updated 6/19