Medieval History and Historical Sources

I. General Bibliographies and Handbooks

II. Repertories of Medieval Historical Sources

III. Chronology

IV. Places and Persons

V. Nations, Regions, and Cultures

Global Medieval Studies

VI. Topical Bibliographies

VII. Ancillary Disciplines

Note: The division between “historical” (State) and “ecclesiastical” (Church) sources is to some degree arbitrary but is a useful bibliographical expedience. Though many resources cover both areas, those listed in the separate bibliography on Medieval Christianity and Ecclesiastical Sources are generally not repeated here. Many resources in the separate bibliographies on Medieval Studies: General Bibliographies and Reference Works and Medieval Latin Literature are also relevant but are generally not repeated here.

I. General Bibliographies and Handbooks


Gray Cowan Boyce, Literature of Medieval History 1930-1975: A Supplement to Louis John Paetow’s A Guide to the Study of Medieval History, 5 vols. (Millwood NY, 1981). Supplements Paetow‘s Guide …, rev. ed. (1931; rev. ed. New York, 1980).  The standard comprehensive reference work in English on medieval history, though now dated. There is an index of names (modern and medieval) in vol. 5, but  no alphabetical subject index, so you must browse the table of contents and the complete list of subject headings in vol. 1 to determine which subheadings are most likely to contain relevant listings for your topic.

R. C. van Caenegem, Introduction aux sources de l’histoire médiévale, rev. ed. by Luc Jocqué (Turnhout, 1997). Thoroughly updated French trans. of Guide to the Sources of Medieval History, Europe in the Middle Ages: Selected Studies 2 (Amsterdam, 1978). . Splendid resource, well-organized and better annotated than Crosby et al, Medieval Studies, but excludes specifically literary texts. Part III, Chapter III, “Liste de sources,” lists repertories of medieval historical texsts by region and repertories of medieval Latin authors. Part IV, Chapter I, lists lexicographical and grammatical works for Latin and the major vernaculars. Abbreviated version published as Manuel des études médiévales (Turnhout, 1997).

Understanding Medieval Primary Sources: Using Historical Sources to Discover Medieval Europe, ed. Joel T. Rosenthal (New York, 2012).  Essays by various hands on Royal and Secular Biography; Vernacular Chronicles and Narrative Sources of History in Medieval England; The Medieval Sermon: Text, Performance and Insight; Wills as Primary Sources; Letters and Letter Collections; Writing Military from Narrative Sources: Norman Battlefield Tactics, c. 1000; Historians and Inquisitors: Testimonies from the Early Inquisitions into Heretical Depravity; Coronation Rituals and Related Materials; The Sources for Manorial and Rural History; Sources for Medieval Maritime History; The Sources for Medieval Urban History; Sources for the Study of Public Health in the Medieval City; Medieval Women’s History: Sources and Issues; Sources for Representative Institutions; Images and Object as Sources for Medieval History; Medieval Archaeology.

John H. Arnold, What is Medieval History? (Cambridge, 2008). A basic introduction to sources and methods, with sections on medieval documents including chronicles, charters, images, and legal documents. 

Paolo Delogu, An Introduction to Medieval History, trans. Matthew Moran (London, 2002).   The English translation includes a concise general bibliography, pp. 225-46.

Andrew Holt, “Historical Studies,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 639-51. 

Hans-Werner Goetz, Proseminar Geschichte: Mittelalter (Stuttgart, 1993). Discursive bibliographical guide to the sources and methodologies of historical research on the Middle Ages. Similar in scope to van Caenegem, but with particular focus on German history and German-language scholarship. See especially the sections “Bibliographie der wichtigsten Nachschlagwerke, Sachwörterbücher, Handbücher, Überblicke, Zeitschriften,” pp. 39-62, and “Historisches Arbeiten. Bibliographie,” pp. 195-202.

Alfred Heit and Ernst Voltmer, Bibliographie zur Geschichte des Mittelalters (Munich, 1997).  Not a discursive manual like Goetz’s, but with even more extensive references. The highly articulated subject headings and table of contents make it easy to locate references on a given topic and compensate for the lack of a subject index (there is an author and title index). Focuses especially but by no means exclusively on German medieval history.

Peter-Johannes Schuler, Grundbibliographie mittelalterliche Geschichte (Stuttgart, 1990). Concise and transparently organized; some brief annotations, no index.

L’histoire médiévale en France: Bilan et perspectives, ed. Michel Balard (Paris, 1991). Bibliographical essays by various hands, including brief contributions on regions other than France, archaeology, iconography, and “sciences auxiliaires.”

Mittelalterforschung nach der Wende 1989, ed. Michael Borgolte, Historische Zeitschrift, Beiheft n.f. 20 (1995).

Also useful as a bibliographical reference work is The New Cambridge Medieval History, 7 vols. (Cambridge, 1995- ): vol. 1. c. 500-c. 700, ed. Paul Fouracre;  vol. 2. c. 700-c. 900, ed. Rosamond McKitterick;  vol. 3. c. 900-c. 1024, ed. Timothy Reuter; vol. 4. c. 1024-c. 1198, ed. David Luscombe and Jonathan Riley-Smith;  vol. 5. c. 1198-c. 1300, ed. David Abulafia; vol. 6. c. 1300-c. 1415, ed. Michael Jones; vol. 7. c. 1415-c. 1500, ed. Christopher Allmand.

For the 15th century, see Handbook of European History, 1400-1600: Late Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Reformation, 2 vols., ed. Thomas A. Brady, Jr., Heiko A. Oberman, and James D. Tracy (Leiden, 1994-95).

American Historical Association. Guide to Historical Literature, 2 vols., gen. ed. M. B. Norton and Pamela Gerardi, 3rd ed. (Oxford, 1995). See the sections on “Medieval Europe” and “Medieval and Modern Jewish History.”


Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature (1913- ).  Includes chapters on Late Antique & Early Middle Ages, Central Middle Ages, and Later Middle Ages.

International Bibliography of Historical Sciences (1926- ). . See sections G (Early History of the Church to Gregory the Great), H (Byzantine History), and I (History of the Middle Ages). Section I includes subheadings on “Literary Sources” and “General Works.”  Each volume has an index of names and a geographical index.

Bibliographical Databases:

Regesta Imperii. Includes a Literaturdatenbank zum Mittelalter with more than one million titles focusing on medieval European history. Basic searches are by title-keyword, keyword, series, journal, personal name, and year. There are alphabetical title-keyword and peronal name indices, as well as an alphabetical thesaurus (e.g., if you were searching for literature on Charlemagne, select k > ka > Karl d. Gr.).  A particularly valuable function is the “Thesaurus,” which enables you to define up to three search criteria, each of which has three options (geographical, temporal, and thematic) that expand into increasingly more narrow options. You can select “Mittelalter” in the chronological option (and further delimit to “Frühmittelalter,” “Hochmittelalter,” or “Spätmittelalter”), then select from a large number of thematic (subject) options. To locate bibliographies, for example, set one search criterion to “Thematische Zuordnung > Allgemeine und Hilfsmittel > Bibliographien”, and a second to “Geographische Zuordnung > Mittelalter” (this yields over 200 hits); if desired, set a third criterion to a specific subject, e.g. “Thematische Zuordnung > Personengeschichte > Regenten (Kaiser, Könige) > Könige von Deutschland; römisch-deutsche Kaiser > Karl d. Gr.”  Note: sometimes it is better not to delimit the subject area so narrowly.

Historische Bibliographie Online. Coverage since 1990. Includes indices of authors, persons and places, and institutions. The search engine allows delimiting by “Mittelalter” or by more narrow geographical or temporal ranges, as well as by broad subject areas (Sachgruppen), type of publication, and year.

Internet resource links:

Historische Hilfswissenschaften / Historical Auxiliary Sciences (English Version).

Magazine Stacks: Tables of Contents of Historical Journals and Monographic Series in German, English

Vocabulary of medieval history:

Vocabulaire historique du moyen âge (Occident, Byzance, Islam), ed. François-Olivier Touati, 3rd ed. (Paris, 2000).  Concise lexicon of French terms and phrases relating to medieval history; entries have no bibliographical references.

Pierre Bonnassie, Les cinquante mots clefs de la histoire médiévale (Toulouse, 1990). 

John James Noel McGurk, A Dictionary of Medieval Terms for the Use of History Students (Reigate, 1970). Basic glossary, no bibliographical references.

Eugen Haberkern and Josef Friedrich Wallach, Hilfswörterbuch für Historiker: Mittelalter und Neuzeit, 2nd rev. ed. (Bern, 1964). 

The vocabulary of medieval intellectual life and institutions is the subject of a series:

CIVICIMA: Etudes sur le vocabulaire intellectuel du Moyen Âge, gen. ed. Olga Weijers (Brepols).

Magali Duchesne, Olivier Guyotjeannin et Marie-Clotilde Hubert, Bibliographie des langues techniques du moyen âge.

Many chapters in Medieval Latin, ed. Mantello and Rigg, deal with the Latin vocabulary of particular areas of medieval culture and literature.


The Digital Atlas of Roman and Medieval Civilizations

Rosamond McKitterick, Atlas of the Medieval World (New York, 2004).

David Ditchburn, Simon MacLean and Angus MacKay, Atlas of Medieval Europe, 2nd ed. (London, 2007).

Colin McEvedy, The New Penguin Atlas of Medieval History (London, 1992).

Nicholas Hooper and Matthew Bennett, The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1992). 

Olivier Guyotjeannin, Atlas de l’histoire de France. La France médiévale, IXe-XVe siècle (Paris, 2005).

For medieval world maps see:

Jens Eike Schnall, “World Maps,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 2136-44.

A. von den Brincken, Kartographische Quellen: Welt-, Regional-, und Seekarten, Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental 51 (Turnhout, 1988).

Patrick Gautier Dalché, “Les sens de mappa (mundi): IVe-XIVe siècle,” Archivum Latinitatis Medii Aevi (Bulletin du Cange) 62 (2004), 187-202.

Evelyn Edson, Mapping Time and Space: How Medieval Mapmakers Viewed Their World (London, 1997).

Evelyn EdsonThe World Map, 1300-1492: The Persistence of Tradition and Transformation (Baltimore, 2007).

Cartography in Antiquity and the Middle Ages: Fresh Perspectives, New Methods, ed. Richard J. A. Talbert and Richard W. Unger (Leiden, 2008)

David Woodward, “Medieval mappaemundi,” in The History of Cartography 1. Cartography in Prehistoric, Ancient, and Medieval Europe and the Mediterranean, ed. J. B. Harley and D. Woodward (Chicago, 1987), pp. 286-370. 

The Hereford World Map: Medieval World Maps and Their Context, ed. Paul D. A. Harvey (London, 2006).Byzantine

Scott D. Westrem, The Hereford Map: A Transcription and Translation of the Legends with Commentary (Turnhout, 2001).

See also the topical bibliography below on Geographical Knowledge.

II. Repertories of Medieval Historical Sources

Repertorium fontium historiae medii aevi primum ad Augusto Potthast digestum, nunc cura collegii historicorum e pluribus nationibus emendatum et auctum, 11 vols. (1962-2007) Volume I is an important guide to major series of monographs and editions, listing the titles of individual volumes in each. Here one can find a analyses of the contents of such series as Monumenta Germaniae Historica . It also contains a list of series by geographical region. Volumes 2-11 are organized alphabetically by author or title, with information on manuscripts, editions, translations, and secondary literature. The website has searchable database of the entries that allows you to generate lists of historical sources by any term that may occur in their titles and to delimit the search by national origin.  Under “Lemma” can enter up to two terms and select the Boolean operators “e” (“and”) or “o” (“or”). For example, selecting “Inglese” under “Comitato” and entering “London” (which will also capture Latin forms of the name) under “Lemma” returns the names of 29 entries on primary texts about London; entering “Chronicle” returns the names of 67 entries on English chronicles; entering “chronica o cronica” returns entries on 39 Latin chronicles from England; entering “Richard II” returns 5 about him; etc.

Olivier Guyotjeannin, Les sources de l’histoire médiévale (Paris, 1998).

For medieval archives, see:

Olivier Guyotjeannin and Christine Nougaret, Bibliographie d’archivistique générale: accéder aux archives. Includes a Bibliographie d’archivistique médiévale.

Charters, Cartularies, and Archives: The Preservation of Documents in the Medieval West, ed. A. Kosto and A. Winroth (Turnhout, 2002). 

La recherche historique en archives du Moyen Age, ed. Paul Delsalle (Paris, 1995).

Friedrich Beck, Die archivalischen Quellen: mit einer Einführung in die historischen Hilfswissenschaften, 4th ed. (Cologne, 2004).

Archive im Internet (Archivschule Marburg)

Archival databases: Searchable database of European archives, divided into archival fonds and research collections.

For administrative documents generally see Brigitte Bedos-Rezak, “Secular Administration,” in Medieval Latin, ed. Mantello and Rigg, pp. 195-229.

See also under particular Nations, Regions, and Cultures and Diplomatics.

For the major genres of medieval historiography, see:

The Oxford History of Historical Writing, vol. 2: 400-1400, ed. Sarah Foot and Chase F. Robinson (Oxford, 2012).

Deborah Mauskopf Deliyannis, ed., Historiography in the Middle Ages (Leiden, 2003). Essays by various hands on, inter alia, medieval Universal histories, Ethnic and National histories, Christian Biography, Dynastic histories, Institutional histories, and urban historiography. Includes a cumulative bibliography of secondary sources.

Herbert Grundmann, Geschichtsschreibung im Mittelalter: Gattungen, Epochen, Eigenart, 3rd ed. (Göttingen, 1978).

See also R. Ray in Medieval Latin, ed. Mantello and Rigg, pp. 639-49, and the relevant fascicles in the Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental series, e.g., v. 14, M. McCormick, Les annales du haut moyen âge (1975);  v. 15, L. Genicot, Les généalogies (1975);  v. 16, K. H. Krüger, Die Universalchroniken (1976). 

See also below under Ancillary Disciplines: Diplomatics.

Medieval Chronicles and Narrative Sources:

Janos Bak, Ryszard Grzesik, Ivan Jurkovič, Chronicon. Medieval Narrative Sources: A Chronological Guide to Medieval Narrative Sources with Introductory Essays (Turnhout, 2013). “By narrative sources we mean writings that contain reports on matters (events) their authors found worth remembering and passing on … We include texts traditionally called annals, chronicles, and histories, then some historical sagas, biographies, and the rare autobiographies” (pp. 141-42). Lists texts in chronological order with reference to editions, translations, and online resources.

R. W. Burgess and M. Kulikowski, Mosaics of Time: The Latin Chronicle Traditions from the First Century BC to the Sixth Century AD, Volume I, A Historical Introduction to the Chronicle Genre from its Origins to the High Middle Ages (Turnhout, 2013). 

The Encyclopedia of the Medieval Chronicle, 2 vols., gen. ed. Graeme Dunphy (New York, 2010).   Includes in vol. 1 an Overview of Articles (Generic, Thematic, and Alphabetical), and in vol. 2 an Index of Works and Authors; General Index; Index of Geographical Names; Index of Manuscripts.

Repertorium Chronicarum: A Bibliography of Medieval Latin Chronicles

Sarah Foot, “Annals and Chronicles in Medieval Europe,” in The Oxford History of Historical Writing, vol. 2: 400-1400, ed. Sarah Foot and Chase F. Robinson (Oxford, 2012).

M. McCormick, Les annales du haut moyen âge, Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental 14 (Turnhout, 1975).

Karl H. Krüger, Die Universalchroniken, Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental 16 (Turnhout, 1976).

Ian Wood, “Universal Chronicles in the Early Medieval West,” medieval worlds 1 (2015), 47-60.

Universal Chronicles in the High Middle Ages, ed. Michele Campopiano and Henry Bainton (York, 2017).

Paul Hayward, “Seminar VI: Later Medieval Chronicles and Histories,” Medieval Primary Sources: Genre, Rhetoric and Transmission

E. M. C. Van Houts, Local and Regional Chronicles, Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental 74 (Turnhout, 1995). 

The Medieval Chronicle (1999- ). Annual.

The Medieval Chronicle: The Medieval Chronicle Society Website

Medieval Chronicles (Boydell and Brewer series).

The Oxford History of Historical Writing, vol. 2: 600 CE to 1400 CE, ed. Sarah Foot and Chase Robinson (Oxford, 2012). 

Denis Hay, Annalists and Historians: Western Historiography from the VIIIth to the XVIIIth Century (London, 1977).

Medieval Narrative Sources: A Gateway into the Medieval Mind, ed. W. Verbeke et al. (Leuven, 2005). 

For overviews see also Graeme Dunphy, “Chronicles,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 1714-16; Goetz, Proseminar Geschichte, pp. 90-101; Roger Ray, “Historiography,” in Medieval Latin, ed. Mantello and Rigg, pp. 639-49. See also the section I.2 “Chroniques” in van Caenegem, Introduction aux Sources, pp. 26-36, and “Quellenkunde” and “Quellensammlungen” in Schuler, Grundbibliographie.

For other historiographical genres (histories, annals, gesta, and genealogies; biographies and autobiographies) see van Caenegem, Introduction aux sources, pp. 37-68.

III. Chronology

R. Dean Ware, “Medieval Chronology: Theory and Practice,” in Medieval Studies, ed, Powell, pp. 252-77.

Arno Borst, The Ordering of Time: From the Ancient Computus to the Modern Computer (Chicago, 1993).

Camarin Porter, “Time Measurement and Chronology in Medieval Studies,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 1270-92.

Ken Mondschein and Denis Casey, “Time and Timekeeping,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 1657-79.

Faith Wallis, “Chronology and Systems of Dating,” in Medieval Latin, ed. Mantello and Rigg, pp. 283-88.

Faith Wallis, “Calendars and Time (Christian),” Oxford Bibliographies: Medieval Studies

H. E. L. Mellersh, Chronology of the Ancient World, 10,000 B.C. to A.D. 799 (New York, 1973; repr. 1994). Continued by the following:

R. L. Storey, Chronology of the Medieval World, 800 to 1491 (New York, 1973; repr. 1994).

Timothy Venning, A Chronology of Early Medieval Western Europe: 450-1066 (New York, 2018).

Walter Eder and Johannes Renger, ed., trans. W. F. M. Henkelman, Brill’s New Pauly, vol. 1: Chronologies of the Ancient World: Names Dates and Dynasties (Leiden, 2007).   Includes Late-antique Germanic Kingdoms and Bishops (i.e. Popes) and Patriarchs.

Joachim Heinzle, Das Mittelalter in Daten: Literatur, Kunst, Geschichte 750-1520 (Munich, 1993).  Left-hand pages list major historical-political events, with references below to major artistic monuments of the corresponding years; right-hand pages list literary monuments by language. An index lists authors and anonymous works by language.

For early medieval tracts De tempore and computistica, see Eligius Dekkers, Clavis Patrum Latinorum, 3rd ed. (Steenbrugge, 1995), pp. 718-38. 

Peter Verbist, Duelling with the Past: Medieval Authors and the Problem of the Christian Era, c. 990-1135, Studies in the Early Middle Ages 21 (Turnhout, 2010). Covers Heriger of Lobbes, Abbo of Fleury, Marianus Scottus, Gerland the Computist, Sigebert of Gembloux, Hezelo of Cluny, Anonymous of Limoges, and Heimo of Bamberg.

C. Philipp E. Nothaft, Dating the Passion: The Life of Jesus and the Emergence of Scientific Chronology (200–1600) (Leiden, 2012).

P. Verbist, Duelling with the Past: Medieval Authors and the Problem of the Christian Era, c. 990–1135Studies in the Early Middle Ages 21 (Turnhout, 2010).

For further references see van CaenegemIntroduction aux Sources, pp. 443-49 (chronology).

The standard printed reference works for reckoning and reconciling dates according to various systems that obtained during the Middle Ages are the following:

Hermann Grotefend, Zeitrechnung des deutschen Mittelalters und der Neuzeit (Hannover, 1891); the HTML version by H. Ruth has a simple calculator to determine the concurrents, epacts, etc. for any given year). Includes an extensive glossary of terms, generic calendars, calendars for German and Swiss dioceses, religious orders, and an index of saints’ feast days. The “Rechner” will generate the dates of major feast days in any given year. Goetz, Proseminar, p. 255, provides an exercise showing how to use Grotefend’s tables to resolve a typical medieval dating clause. Abridged version: Taschenbuch der Zeitrechnung des deutschen Mittelalters, 10th ed. (1960).

A. Capelli, Cronologia, cronografia e calendario perpetuo dal principio dell’era cristiana al giorni nostri: Tavole cronologico-sincrone e quadri sinottici per verificare le date storiche, 6th ed. (Milan, 1988).

Hans Lietzmann, Zeitrechnung der römischen Kaiserzeit, des Mittelalters und der Neuzeit (Berlin, 1956).

Bonnie Blackburn and Leofranc Holford-Strevens, The Oxford Companion to the Year (Oxford, 1999). Accessible handbook, includes tables, conversion formulas, and a basic exposition of the computus in medieval Europe.

On algorithms for converting dates, see:

E. G. Richards, Mapping Time: The Calendar and Its History (Oxford, 1988).

For easter tables see also:

Robert H. van Gent, A Perpetual Easter and Passover Calculator, which also includes a bibliography and list of internet resources. Not for the mathematically-challenged.

Time and the Calendar, by James W. Marchand (WEMSK 16).

Calendar conversion software:

Denis Muzerelle, Calendoscope. Logiciel d’aide à l’identification des calendriers liturgiques médiévaux

Denis Muzerelle, Millesimo, logiciel de chronologie médiévale. Program for converting and reconciling medieval dates, both historical and liturgical.

Medieval Calendar Calculator. Pick any year and month, with several options for style of calendar.

Medieval Calendar Utility. Calculates indictions and year according to various styles.

IV. Places and Persons

Places and Placenames:

D. P. Blok, Ortsnamen, Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental 54 (Turnhout, 1988). 

Latin Place Names Found in the Imprints of Books Published before 1801 and Their Vernacular Equivalents (Assoc. of College and Research Libraries, Bibliographic Standards Committee).

Geodaten historischer Ortsnamen. MGH database currently drawn from Graesse (next item) that locates on a map any historical placename (you must enter an historical name, e.g., Lugdunensis rather than Lyon).

J. Graesse, Orbis Latinus Lexikon lateinischer geographischer Namen, 3 vols., 4th ed. rev. by Helmut Plechl (Braunschweig, 1972). Guide to Latin place-names, giving their variant forms and Modern German equivalents.

Ulysse Chevalier, Répertoire des sources historiques du moyen âge: Topo-bibliographie, 2 vols. (Paris, 1894-1913)  Alphabetical by locality.

Biographical Reference Works, Prosopography, Personal Names:

Ulysse Chevalier, Répertoire des sources historiques du moyen âge: Bio-bibliographie, 2 vols. (Paris, 1905-07) Alphabetical by person.

Alfred Franklin, Dictionnaire des noms, surnoms et pseudonymes latins de l’histoire littéraire du moyen âge [1100 à 1530] (1875; rpt. Turin, 1961)

Key Figures in Medieval Europe: An Encyclopedia, ed. Richard K. Emmerson and Sandra Clayton-Emmerson, 2 vols. (New York, 2006).  Also published in two volumes as Who’s Who in the Middle Ages.

Gestalten des Mittelalters: Ein Lexikon historischer und literarischer Personen in Dichtung, Musik und Kunst, ed. Horst Brunner and Mathias Herweg (Stuttgart, 2007).

The Rise of the Medieval World 500-1300: A Biographical Dictionary, ed. Jana K. Schulman (Westport CN, 2002). Covers major persons and authors, with a few secondary references, mainly limited to English.

The Late Medieval Age of Crisis and Renewal 1300-1500: A Biographical Dictionary, ed. Clayton J. Drees (Westport CN, 2001). Same format as preceding item.

For the major national biographical dictionaries, see Medieval Latin, ed. Mantello and Rigg, p. 45.

For medieval prosopography and genealogy, see:

Ralph Mathisen, “Where are all the PDBs?: The Creation of Prosopographical Databases for the Ancient and Medieval Worlds,” in Prosopography Approaches and Applications: A Handbook, ed. K. S. B. Keats-Rohan (Oxford, 2007), pp. 95-126.

For further references see van CaenegemIntroduction aux Sources, pp. 411-25 (names of persons, prosopography, and biography), 426-34 (place names); Keats-Rohan in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 1552-58.; Beech in Medieval Studies, ed, Powell, pp.185-226.

Prosopographie als Sozialgeschichte? Methoden personengeschichtlicher Erforschung des Mittelalters (Munich, 1978), 

Annual bibliographies appear in the journal Medieval Prosopography: History and Collective Biography (1980- ),

For individual countries see below under “Regions, Nations, and Cultures.”

Personennamen des Mittelalters: PMA: Ansetzungs- und Verweisungsformen gemäss den RAK, 2 vols., Regeln für die alphabetische Katalogisierung 6 (Wiesbaden, 1989). Use to identify variant forms of medieval authors’ names cited in reference works.

Personal Names Studies of Medieval Europe: Social Identity and Familial Structures, ed. George T. Beech, Monique Bourin, and Pascal Chareille (Kalamazoo MI, 2002).

Jadran Ferluga et al., Glossar zur frühmittelalterlichen Geschichte im oestlichen Europa (Wiesbaden, 1973- ). Series A: Lateinische Namen bis 900.

Julie StampnitzkySources for the Study of Medieval Jewish Names: An Annotated Bibliography.

Medieval Prosopography (1980- ). 

Archive for Medieval Prosopography.

V. Nations, Regions, and Cultures

Fullest references are provided for Western Europe (esp. England). References for other global medieval cultures are largely limited to a few bibliographical resources and handbooks as starting points. Additional references and bibliographies for Western European national histories can be found in van CaenegemIntroduction aux Sources, pp. 295-321 (collections of texts), 328-44 (guides and bibliographies), 357-361 (serial bibliographies), 408-9 (dictionaries and encyclopedias), 412-25 (prosopography and biography), 426-42 (place names and atlases), 443-49 (chronologies) and Goetz, Proseminar. See also European Historical Bibliographies and the on-line European National bibliographies via The European Library or Karlsruhe Virtual Catalog KVK, and the section “storia dei regni e delle entità politiche territoriali” in Medioevo Latino. For many European nations there are volumes in the series Historical Dictionaries of Europe, which will not be itemized here.

The database Recensio.regio: Review Platform for Regional History provides open-access reviews in historical journals. “Content Browsing” allows one to the Middle Ages or to certain centuries as well as to particular Regions and Topics.

GENS: Group terminology and Ethnic Nomenclature: A Semantic database (Latin Europe c. 400-1200)Database of the project Social Cohesion, Identity and Religion in Europe 400-1200.


On Global (or Transcultural) Medieval Studies as a disciplinary development see, for example, the scholarship in such recent journals as The Medieval Globe, Medieval Worlds, Journal of Medieval Worlds, and Journal of Transcultural Medieval Studies; the special issue “Global Medieval Studies” of Past & Present 238, issue supplement 13 (November 2018), as well as the website Global Middle Ages.

Robert I. Moore, “A Global Middle Ages?,” in The Prospect of Global History, ed. James Belich, John Darwin, Margret Frenz, and Chris Wickham (Oxford, 2016), pp. 80-92.

Julia McClure, “A New Politics of the Middle Ages: A Global Middle Ages for a Global Modernity,” History Compass 13.11 (November 2015), 610-19.

Medievalisms in the Postcolonial World: The Idea of “The Middle Ages” Outside Europe, ed. Kathleen Davis and Nadia Altschul (Baltimore, 2009).

Europa im Geflecht der Welt. Mittelalterliche Migrationen in globalen Bezügen, ed. Michael Borgolte et al. (Berlin, 2012).

Bernd Schneidmüller, “Fitting Medieval Europe into the World: Patterns of Integration, Migration, and Uniqueness,” Journal of Transcultural Studies 2 (2014), 8-38.

The Cambridge World History, vol. 5: Expanding Webs of Exchange and Conflict, 500 CE–1500 CE, ed. Benjamin Z. Kedar and Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks (Cambridge, 2015).

Beyond Medieval Europe (ARC Humanities Press series)


Oxford Research Encyclopedias: African History

François-Xavier Fauvelle, The Golden Rhinoceros: Histories of the African Middle Ages (Princeton NJ, 2018). Introduction.

The Cambridge History of Africa, vol.2: c.500 BC to 1050 AD, ed. J. D. Fage (Cambridge, 1979); vol. 3: c. 1050-c.1600, ed. Roland Oliver (Cambridge, 1977).

Roland Oliver and Anthony Atmore, Medieval Africa, 1250-1800, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, 2001).

General History of Africa, vol. 3: Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century, ed M. Elfassi (London, 1990); vol. 4: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century, ed. D. T. Niane (London, 1984).

Anne Haour, Rulers, Warriors, Traders, Clerics. The Central Sahel and the North Sea, 800-1500 (Oxford, 2008).

Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History, ed. Nehemia Levtzion and J. F. P. Hopkins, Fontes Historiae Africanae, Series Arabica 4 (Cambridge, 1981).

Raymond Mauny, Tableau géographique de l’Ouest africain au Moyen Âge d’après les sources écrits, la tradition et l’archéologie (Dakar, 1961).

Michael A. GomezAfrican Dominion: A New History of Empire in Early and Medieval West Africa (Princeton NJ, 2018).

Nehemia Levtzion and J. SpauldingMedieval West Africa: Views from Arab Scholars and Merchants (Princeton NJ, 2003).

T. Insoll, The Archaeology of Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa (Cambridge, 2003).

Caravans of Gold, Fragments in Time: Art, Culture, and Exchange across Medieval Saharan Africa, ed. Kathleen Bickford Berzock (Princeton, 2019).

Tombouktou Manuscripts Project


Claremont Coptic Encyclopedia

Alberto Camplani, Bibliography on Coptic History and Historiography 2088-2016.

Coptic Bibliography, in CMCL Corpus dei Manoscritti Copti Letterari, dir. Tito Orlandi (by subscription only).

Winifred Cammerer, A Coptic Bibliography (Ann Arbor MI, 1950).

Egypt and the Byzantine World, 300-700, ed. R. Bagnall (Cambridge, 2007).


Marie-Laure Derat, Le domaine des rois éthiopiens (1270-1527). Espace, pouvoir et monachisme (Paris, 2003).

Ghana, Mali, and Songhay:

David C. ConradEmpires of Medieval West Africa: Ghana, Mali, and Songhay (New York, 2005).

Patricia McKissack and Fredrick McKissackThe Royal Kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhay: Life in Medieval Africa (New York, 1994).

Nehemia Levtzion, Ancient Ghana and Mali (London, 1973).


S. F. NadelA Black Byzantium, the Kingdom of Nupe in Nigeria (Oxford, 1942).

Nduntuei O. ItaBibliography of Nigeria: A Survey of Anthropological and Linguistic Writings form the Earliest Times to 1966 (New York, 1971).

Roger Blench and Constanze Weise, “Bibliography of Nupe Studies,” in S.F. Nadel: The Field Diaries of an Anthropologist in Nigeria 1935-36, ed. Blench (2006). pp. xx-xxvi.


Medieval Nubia

Giovanni R. Ruffini, Medieval Nubia: A Social and Economic History (Oxford, 2012)

D. A. WelsbyThe Medieval Kingdoms of Nubia: Pagans, Christians and Muslims along the Middle Nile (London, 2002).

Richard A. Lobdan, Jr., The A to Z of Ancient and Medieval Nubia (London, 2010). 


Pekka Masonen, The Negroland Revisited: Discovery and Invention of the Sudanese Middle Ages (Helsinki, 2000).


Randall L. Pouwels, Horn and Crescent: Cultural Change and Traditional Islam on the East African Coast, 800-1900 (Cambridge, 1987).


Innocent Pikirayi, The Zimbabwe Culture: Origins and Decline of Southern Zambezian States (Walnut Creek CA, 2001).


Juan Schobinger, The Ancient Americans: A Reference Guide to the Art, Culture, and History of pre-Columbian North and South America, trans. Carys Evans-Corrales (Armonk NY, 2001).

FAMSI Bibliografía Mesoamericana

FAMSI Research Materials

Brent Woodfill, “Mesoamerican Archaeology,” Oxford Bibliographies

Walter Robert Thurmond Witschey and Clifford T. BrownHistorical Dictionary of Mesoamerica (Lanham MD, 2012).

Maya Codices Database


Manuel Aguilar-MorenoHandbook to Life in the Aztec World (Oxford, 2006).

Greater Cahokia Archaeology

Medieval Technology and American History

James Muldoon, “Medieval Canon Law and the Conquest of the Americas,” Jahrbuch für Geschichte Lateinamerikas 37 (2000), 9-22.

Bibliographical Surveys:

“Byzantine Studies,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 181-240.

Alice-Mary Talbot, “Byzantine Studies at the Beginning of the Twenty-first Century,” Journal of English and Germanic Philology 105 (2006), 25-43. 

Michael McCormick, “Byzantium and Modern Medieval Studies,” in The Past and Future of Medieval Studies, ed. John van Engen (Notre Dame IN, 1994), pp. 58-72. Methodological orientation with “A Quick Reference Guide to Byzantine Studies.”

Günter Weiß, Byzanz: Kritischer Forschungs- und Literaturbericht 1968-1985, Historische Zeitschrift, Sonderheft 14 (1986).



Iōannēs E. Karagiannopulos and Günter Weiß, Quellenkunde zur Geschichte von Byzanz: 324 – 1453, 2 vols., Schriften zur Geistesgeschichte des östlichen Europa (Wiesbaden, 1982).

Dictionary Catalogue of the Byzantine Collection of the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library, Washington, D.C., 12 vols. (Boston, 1975).

Emily Albu Hanawalt, An Annotated Bibliography of Byzantine Sources in English Translation (Brookline MA, 1988).

Giorgio Vespignani, “Bibliografia dell’Italia bizantina (secoli VI-XI). Storia, società, istituzioni,” 10 (2009), 397-444.

Byzantium: Byzantine Studies on the Internet (Paul Halsall).

Bibliography on Gender in Byzantium (Dumbarton Oaks).

Bibliography on Byzantine Material Culture and Daily Life


Byzantinische Zeitschrift (1892- ), III. Abteilung: Bibliographische Notizien und Mitteilungen. 

Byzantinische Bibliographie Online. Includes the bibliographies in Byzantinische Zeitschrift from 98 (2005). 

Reference Works:

The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies, ed. Robin Cormack, John F. Haldon, and Elizabeth Jeffreys (Oxford, 2008).

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, ed. A. Kazhdan et al., 3 vols. (Oxford, 2005).

Leonora Neville, Guide to Byzantine Historical Writing (Cambridge, 2018).

Otto Mazal, Handbuch der Byzantinistik (Graz, 1989). 

John Haldon, The Palgrave Atlas of Byzantine History (New York, 2005). 

A Chronology of the Byzantine Empire, ed. Timothy Venning (New York, 2006). 

Günter Weiß and Johannes Karayannopoulos, Quellenkunde zur Geschichte von Byzanz (324-1453), Schriften zur Geistesgeschichte des östlichen Europa 14 (Wiesbaden, 1982). 

Leslie Brubaker, John Haldon, and Robert Ousterhout, Byzantium in the Iconoclast Era (c. 680-850): The Sources: An Annotated Survey (Aldershot, 2001).

Byzantine Studies Conference. Abstracts of Papers (1975- ).


Encyclopaedic Prosopographical Lexicon of Byzantine History and Civilization, 2 vols., ed. Alexis G. Savvides et al. (Turnhout, 2007-08). 

Prosopography of the Byzantine World

Prosopographie der mittelbyzantinischen Zeit (Berlin, 1998- ).

J. R. Martindale, Prosopography of the Byzantine Empire (Aldershot, 2001). 

Salvatore Cosentino, Prosopografia dell’Italia bizantina (493-804) (Bologna, 1996). 2 vols. 

Archaeology, Material Culture, and Art:

Portail des ressources byzantines (Université de Fribourg). Includes bibliographies “Vos premières connaissances” and “Sources et instruments de travail” as well as “Ressources internet“.

Research Guide for Byzantine Art and Archaeology

Bibliography on Byzantine Material Culture and Daily Life

Lynn Jones,” Byzantine Art,” Oxford Bibliographies: Medieval Studies

W. Eugene Kleinbauer, Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture: An Annotated Bibliography and Historiography (Boston, 1992). 

Repertories and Collections of Sources:

Corpus fontium historiae byzantinae (Berlin/Vienna/Washington, D.C., 1967- ).

Byzantinische Geschichtsschreiber, ed. E. von Ivana, 18 vols. (Graz, 1954-1987).


International Association of Byzantine Studies

Byzantine Studies, Dumbarton Oaks

Australasian Association for Byzantine Studies


Two Bibliographies of Late Ancient and Medieval Armenia and Georgia

R. W. Thomson, A Bibliography of Classical Armenian Literature to 1500 AD, Corpus Christianorum (Turnhout, 1995). 

C. Toumanoff, “Armenia and Georgia,” in The Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. IV: The Byzantine Empire, Part I (Cambridge, 1966), pp. 593-637. 

Robert W. Thomson, Rewriting Caucasian History: The Medieval Armenian Adaptation of the Georgian Chronicles (Oxford, 1996).

C. Toumanoff, Studies in Christian Caucasian History (Georgetown, 1963). 

l Caucaso: Cerniera fra Culture dal Mediterraneo alla Persia (secoli IV-XI), Settimane di Studio del Centro Italiano di Studi sull’Alto Medioevo 43 (Spoleto, 1996). 

Georgien im Spiegel seiner Kultur und Geschichte. Zweites deutsch-georgisches Symposium, 9. bis 11. Mai 1997, Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, Preußischer Kulturbesitz. Vortragstexte, ed. Brigitta Schrade (Berlin, 1998).

Cultural Interactions in Medieval Georgia, ed. Thomas Kaffenberger, Michele Bacci and Manuela Studer-Karlen, Scrinium Friburgense 41 (2018). Contributions focus on art and architecture.

Bumberazi: Explorations in Medieval Georgia and Caucasia

The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume 1: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, ed. Richard G. Hovannisian (New York, 1997). 

J. Laurent, L’Armenie entre Byzance et l’Islam depuis la conquête arabe jusqu’en 886, rev. M. Canard (Lisbon, 1980).

Gérard Dédéyan, Les Arméniens entre Grecs Musulmans et Croisés. Étude sur les pouvoirs arméniens dans le proche-orient méditerranéan, 2 vols. (Lisbon, 2003). 

Robert H. Hewsen and Christopher Salvatico, Armenia: A Historical Atlas (Chicago, 2001). 


Bibliography of Islamic Central Asia, ed. Yuri Bregel, 3 vols. (Bloomington IN, 1995). 

Devin DeWeese, “Islam in Central Asia,” Oxford Bibliographies.


Medieval East Central Europe in a Comparative Perspective: From Frontier Zones to Lands in Focus, ed. Gerhard Jaritz and Katalin Szende (New York, 2016). On the historiographical and political complications involved in the regional terms “Central Europe,” “East Central Europe,” and “Eastern Europe” see the contribution by Nora Berend, “The Mirage of East Central Europe: Historical Regions in a Comparative Perspective.” The omnibus category “Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe” has been adopted here as a bibliographical convenience, with some subdivisions that reflect contemporary academic usage. To date it has not been possible to include coverage of all individual constituent nation-states or peoples of these regions.

European Bibliography of Slavic and East European Studies

Biographisches Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas, 4 vols., ed. Mathias Bernath und Felix v. Schroede (Munich, 1974-81).

Florin Curta, “The History and Archaeology of Early Medieval Eastern and East Central Europe (ca. 500-1500): A Bibliography,” in East Central & Eastern Europe in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Florin Curta (Ann Arbor MI, 2005), pp. 297-380.

Hundert Jahre Osteuropäische Geschichte: Vergangenheit, Gegenwart und Zukunft, ed Dittmar Dahlmann (Stuttgart, 2005).

Herder-Institut für historische Ostmitteleuropaforschung

Leibniz-Institut für Ost- und Südost-Europaforschung

Central and Eastern Europe in the Middle Ages: A Cultural History, ed. Piotr Górecki and Nancy van Deusen (New York, 2009).

Medieval and Early Modern Studies for Central and Eastern Europe (2009- ).

Europas Mitte um 1000, ed. Alfried Wieczorek and Hans-Martin Hinz, 3 vols. (Stuttgart, 2001). 

Jean W. Sedlar, East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500, A History of East Central Europe, vol. 3 (Seattle, 1994).

The Medieval Networks in East Central Europe, ed. Balázs Nagy, Felicitas Schmieder, and András Vadas (New York, 2019).

East Central and Eastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 450-1450 (Brill series)

Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte des Östlichen Europa (Franz Steiner series)

Central European Medieval Texts (Budapest, 1998- ).


Olod Nemerkenyi,  “Hungary,” Oxford Bibliographies: Medieval Studies

Ménestrel: Hungary

András Róna-Tas, Hungarians and Europe in the Early Middle Ages An Introduction to Early Hungarian History, trans. Nicholas Bodoczky (Budapest, 1999).

Gusztáv Heckenast, “Forschungen zur Geschichte des ungarischen Mittelalters in den Jahren 1945 bis 1964,” Mitteilungen des Instituts für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung 73 (1965), 367-381. 

Hungaricana Archives

Database of Medieval Charters Issued by Place of Authentication (1181-1353)

A. F. Gombos, Catalogus fontium historiae Hungariae 800-1301, 3 vols. (Budapest, 1937-43).

Georgius Györffy, et al., ed., Diplomata Hungariae antiquissima: accedunt epistolae et acta ad historiam Hungariae pertinentia, vol. 1: Ab anno 1000 usque ad annum 1131 (Budapest, 1992- ).

C. A. Macartney, The Medieval Hungarian Historians: A Critical and Analytical Guide (Cambridge, 1953).

Southeastern Europe:

Historische Bücherkunde Südosteuropa, ed. Mathias Bernath and Karl Nehring, Volume 1: Mittelalter, Südosteuropäische Arbeiten 76/1-2 (Munich, 1978-80).

Gertrud Krallert-Sattler, Manfred Stoy, and Gerhard SeewannSüdosteuropa-Bibliographie.

Handbuch zur Geschichte Südosteuropas

Florin Curta, Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500-1250 (Cambridge, 2006).

Markus Koller, “Ottoman History fo South-East Europe.”

Peter F. SugarSoutheastern Europe under Ottoman Rule, 1354-1804, A History of East Central Europe 5 (Seattle, 1977).

John V. A. Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century (Ann Arbor, 1983).

John V. A. Fine, The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest (Ann Arbor, 1987).

Samu Szádeczky-Kardoss, Avarica. Über Awarengeschichte und ihre Quellen (Szeged, 1986).

Samu Szádeczky-Kardoss, Az avar történelem forrásai (557-től 806-ig) [The Sources of Avar History from 557 to 806] (Budapest, 1998).

Teréz Olajos, A 9. századi avar történelem görög nyelvű forrásai. [The Greek Sources for the Avar History of the Ninth Century], Szegedi Középkortörténeti Könyvtár 16 (Szeged, 2001).

József Szarka, “Greek Sources of the Avar History of the Ninth Century,” Chronica 2 (2002), 151-59.

Awarenforschungen. ed. Falko Daim, 2 vols., Archaeologia Austriaca Monographien 2, Studien zur Archäologie der Awaren 4 (Vienna, 1992).

Awaren in Europa. Schätze eines asiatischen Reitervolkes, 6.-8. Jh., ed. W. Meier-Arendt and B. Kürti (Frankfurt, 1985).

Omeljan Pritsak, A select bibliography of recent archeological (and some historical) publications on the Avars

Slavic Cultures:

American Bibliography of Slavic and Eastern European Studies (1956)

Marta Deyrup, “Slavic Studies,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 1253-63.

Florin Curta, The Making of the Slavs: History and Archaeology of the Lower Danube Region, A.D. 500-700 (Cambridge, 2001).

Paul M. Barford, The Early Slavs: Culture and Society in Early Medieval Eastern Europe (Ithaca NY, 2001). 

Resource Center for Medieval Slavic Studies (Ohio State Univ.)

Jutta Reisinger and Günter SowaDas Ethnikon Sclavi in den lateinischen Quellen bis zum Jahr 900Glossar zur frühmittelalterlichen Geschichte im östlichen Europa, Beihefte 6 (Stuttgart, 1990).

Heinrich KunstmannDie Slaven: ihr Name, ihre Wanderung nach Europa und die Anfänge der russischen Geschichte in historisch-onomastischer Sicht (Stuttgart, 1996).


Handbuch der Geschichte der böhmischen Länder, 2 vols. (Stuttgart, 1967-74).

Biographisches Lexikon zur Geschichte der böhmischen Länder, ed. Heribert Sturm and Ferdinand Seibt et al. (1979- ). 

Winfried Baumann, Die Literatur des Mittelalters in Böhmen: deutsch-lateinisch-tschechische Literatur vom 10. bis zum 15. Jahrhundert (Munich, 1978).

Jan KlapsteThe Czech Lands in Medieval Transformation (Leiden, 2012).

Czech Medieval Sources Online


Kiril Petkov, The Voices of Medieval Bulgaria, Seventh-Fifteenth Century: The Records of a Bygone Culture (Leiden, 2008).

David J. Birnbaum et al., Repertorium of Old Bulgarian Literature and Letters 

Damatia, Croatia, Slavonia

Danijel Džino, Becoming Slav, Becoming Croat: Identity Transformations in Post-Roman and Early Medieval Dalmatia (Leiden, 2010).

John V. A. Fine Jr., When Ethnicity Did Not Matter in the Balkans: A Study of Identity in Pre-Nationalist Croatia, Dalmatia, and Slavonia in the Medieval and Early-Modern Periods (Ann Arbor MI, 2010).

Ivo SupičićCroatia in the Early Middle Ages: A Cultural Survey (London, 1999).

Damir Karbić and Marija Karbić, The Laws and Customs of Medieval Croatia and Slavonia: A Guide to the Extant Sourcesed. Martyn Rady (London, 2013).


Powel Kras, “Poland,” Oxford Medieval Bibliographies: Medieval Studies.

Pawel Kras, “Ethnic and Religious Groups in Medieval Poland,” Oxford Bibliographies.

Andrea Schmidt-Rösler, Polen: vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart (Regensburg, 1996).

P. David, Les sources de l’histoire de Pologne à l’époque des Piasts (983-1386) (Paris, 1934). 

Bibliografia Historii Polskiej

The Cambridge History of Poland from the Origins to Sobieski (to 1696), ed. W. F. Reddaway (Cambridge, 1950). 


Internationale Bibliographie zum vorpetrinischen Russland

Russell E. Martin, “Russia and Muscovy,” Oxford Bibliographies

Charles J. Halperin, “Ivan IV the Terrible, Tsar of Russia,” Oxford Bibliographies

The Cambridge History of Russia, Vol 1: From Early Rus’ to 1689, ed. Maureen Perrie (Cambridge, 2006). 

Charles J. Halperin, Russia and the Golden Horde: The Mongol Impact on Medieval Russian History (South Bend IN, 1987).

Simon Franklin and Jonathan Shepard, The Emergence of Rus, 750-1200 (New York, 1996).

Janet Martin, Medieval Russia, 980-1584, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, 2012).

John FennellThe Crisis of Medieval Russia 1200-1304 (London, 1983).

Robert O. Crummey, The Formation of Muscovy, 1304-1613 (New York, 1987).

Christian RaffenspergerReimagining Europe: Kievan Rus’ in the Medieval World, 988-1146 (Cambridge MA, 2012).

Medieval Russia: A Source Book, 850-1700, ed. Basil Dmytryshyn, 3rd ed. (Gulf Breeze FL, 1991).

Daniel C. Waugh, Medieval and Early Modern Russia and Ukraine

ArcheoBiblioBase: Archives in Russia


John Chaffee, “Middle Period China,” Oxford Bibliographies.

Ancient and Early Medieval Chinese Literature: A Reference Guide, 4 vols., ed. David R. Knechtges and Taiping Chang (ILeiden, 2010-14).

Charles Holcombe, “Was Medieval China Medieval? (Post‐Han to Mid‐Tang),” in A Companion to Chinese History, ed. Michael Szonyi (Malden MA, 2016), pp. 106-17.

Bibliography of Western Works on Early Medieval China

Michael J. Bechtel, Bibliography of Mongol Studies

Early Medieval China: A Sourcebook, ed. Wendy Swartz et al. (New York, 2014). 

Victor Cunrui Xiong, The A to Z of Medieval China (London, 2010). 

Victor Cunxui Xiong, Historical Dictionary of Medieval China (London, 2008). 

Early Medieval China (1994- ).

Early Medieval China Group


Medieval England: An Encyclopedia, ed. Paul E. Szarmach et al. (New York, 1988).

Edgar Graves, A Bibliography of English History to 1485 (Oxford, 1975).  Well-indexed, remains useful for browsing, but the data is incorporated in the Bibliography of British and Irish History (below under Serial).

A Companion to Britain in the Later Middle Ages, ed. S. H. Rigby (Oxford, 2003). 28 essays under the headings “Economy and Society in Town and Country”; “Politics and Law”; “The Church and Piety”; “Education and Culture.” Includes a Bibliography of Secondary Sources and a subject index.

Reader’s Guide to British History, ed. David Loades (New York, 2003)


Bibliography of British and Irish History.  Incorporates: Annual Bibliographies of British and Irish History (1975-2002).  and Writings on British History (1901-74) ; pre-1901 material from Gross and Graves; London’s Past Online; and Writings on Irish History. A subject tree is available under Advanced search.


C. R. Cheney, Handbook of Dates for Students of English History, new ed. rev. by Michael Jones (Cambridge, 2000). Consult for regnal years, popes, dates of Easter, etc. Includes a clear and concise survey of “Reckonings of Time” (pp. 1-20). Table of Contents and Chap. 1 available as a .pdf here.

E. B. Fryde et al., Handbook of British Chronology, 3rd ed. (London, 1986).  Lists dates of rulers, officers of state, bishops and archbishops, etc. Table of Contents as a .pdf here.

Historical Documents:

Royal Historical Society, National & Regional History.  Guide to individual volumes published in historical series.  Supplements L. C. Mullins, Texts and Calendars: An Analytical Guide to Serial Publications, Royal Historical Society Guides and Handbooks 7 (London, 1978) ; Texts and Calendars II: An Analytical Guide to Serial Publications, 1957­-1982, Royal Historical Society Guides and Handbooks 12 (London, 1983).

Rolls Series: Rerum Britannicarum Medii Aevi Scriptores (London, 1858-96).  Online index of contents. See M. D. Knowles, “Great Historical Enterprises IV. The Rolls Series,” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 11 (1961), 137-59.

Andrew Prescott, English Historical Documents (London, 1988).

English Historical Documents, gen. ed. David Douglas (Oxford, 1968- ). : vol.1. c. 500-1042, ed. D. Whitelock (2nd ed.); vol. 2. 1042-1189, ed. D. C. Douglas and G. W. Greenaway (2nd ed.); vol. 3. 1189-1327, ed. H. Rothwell; vol. 4. 1327-1485, ed. A. R. Myers. Extensive selections in translation with introductions and notes.


Kenneth M. Castle and Michael Gervers, “Charters of the British Isles,” Oxford Bibliographies: Medieval Stuides.

Charters and Charter Scholarship in Britain and Ireland, ed. Marie Therese Flanagan and Judith A. Green (New York, 2005). 

G. R. C. Davies, Medieval Cartularies of Great Britain and Ireland, rev. ed. by Claire Breay et al. (London, 2010). 

See also Sharpe in Medieval Latin, ed. Mantello and Rigg, pp. 230-41; see also below under each period (pre-Conquest, post-Conquest).

M. T. Clanchy, From Memory to Written Record: England 1066-1307, 2nd ed. (Oxford, 1993).

Emily Steiner, Documentary Culture and the Making of Medieval English Literature (Cambridge, 2003). 

Pragmatic Literacy, East and West 1200-1330, ed. Richard Britnell (Cambridge, 1997). Includes contributions on non-literary records in medieval Europe, with a particular focus on medieval England (English government, estate, town, and ecclesiastical records for the period 1250-1330).


Lister Mathisen, “Chronicles of England and the British Isles,” Oxford Bibliographies: Medieval Studies. Covers vernacular and Latin chronicles.

Lister Matheson, “Vernacular Chronicles and Narrative Sources of History in Medieval England,” in Understanding Medieval Primary Sources, ed. Rosenthal, pp. 24-42.

Antonia Grandsen, Historical Writing in England, 2 vols. (London, 1996): vol. 1:  c. 500 to c. 1307; vol. 2: c. 1307 to the early sixteenth century.

Chris Given-Wilson, Chronicles: The Writing of History in Medieval England (London, 1994).

Archives and Databases of Historical Sources:

Janet Foster and Julia Sheppard, British Archives: A Guide to Archive Resources in the United Kingdom, 4th ed. (New York, 2002). Use the Main Index and Key Subject Guide to locate relevant sections.

The National Archives. Includes the Manorial Documents Register. See especially the Research Guides: Medieval and Early Modern History for help searching particular kinds of documents. The National Archives was formed in 2003 by merging the former Public Record Office and Historical Manuscripts Commission. One major series, the Parliament Rolls, has been published separately in print and CD-ROM as well as a database that requires a subscription:

The Parliament Rolls of Medieval England 1275-1504, 16 vols. and CD-ROM, gen. ed. Chris Given-Wilson (Woodbridge, 2005). 

Henry III Fine Rolls Project

For older guides to the PRO see:

Guide to the contents of the Public Record Office, 3 vols. (London, 1963-68).

V. H. Galbraith, An Introduction to the Use of the Public Records (London, 1935).

Medieval and Early Modern Sources Online. Covers English, Scottish, and Irish sources (printed and manuscript) from ca. 1100-1800. Searches can be limited with a date range, and limited to subsets of sources (“England” and “Medieval”; “Rolls Series”, etc.). No summary information is provided on the sources. 

British History Online. Extensive collections of primary sources covering the period 1300-1800. Most content is free, though Calendars are part of Premium Content accessible by subscription only. Browse by places, subjects, periods, sources, maps, or use the full-text search function. See Using the BHO for search tips and a valuable list of External resources including on London history.  See the Publications Catalogue for a full of online books and series included. Has Subject Guides to Biography, Religious History, Local History, Parliamentary History, and Urban History.  Includes Parliament Rolls of Medieval England, ed. Chris Given-Wilson et al. (Woodbridge, 2005). 

DEEDS: Documents of Early England Data Set. “The DEEDS corpus, as of March 2016, consisted of 44,400 medieval charters. 41,000 of the charters are in Latin. The charters are from the British Isles, France and german-speaking Europe.”

Prosopography of Medieval England:

The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 24 vols. (Oxford, 1959-60).

Some Notes on Medieval English Genealogy

Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England. Contains a bibliography of Anglo-Saxon People Recorded in Select Reference Works: secular hierarchy, ecclesiastical hierarchy, miscellaneous (authors, scholars and scribes; non-Anglo-Saxons; saints; Scandinavians; testators; women).

Domesday Names: An Index of Latin Personal and Place Names in Domesday Book, ed. K. S. B. Keats-Rohan and David E. Thornton (Woodbridge, 1997).

K. S. B. Keats-Rohan, Domesday People: A Prosopography of Persons occurring in English Documents, 1066-1166 (Woodbridge, 1999).

K. S. B. Keats-Rohan, Domesday Descendants: a Prosopography of Persons Occurring in English Documents, 1066-1166: II Pipe Rolls to Cartae Baronum (Woodbridge, 2002).

David Bates, A Bibliography of Domesday Book (Woodbridge, 1986). 

Family Trees and the Roots of Politics: The Prosopography of Britain and France from the Tenth to the Twelfth Century, ed. K.S.B. Keats-Rohan (Woodbridge, 1997). 

A. B. Emden, A Biographical Register of the University of Cambridge to 1500 (Cambridge, 1963).

Indexes to A.B. Emden’s Biographical Registers of the University of Cambridge to 1500

ACAD: A Cambridge Alumni Database, 1200-1900.

A. B. Emden, A Biographical Register of the University of Oxford to A. D. 1500, 3 vols. (Oxford, 1957-59).

Indexes to A.B. Emden’s Biographical Registers of the University of Oxford to 1540

England’s Immigrants 1330-1550. Resident Aliens in the Late Middle Ages.

Medieval Family Life: The Paston, Cely, Plumpton, Stonor and Armburgh Papers (2010). Digital resource.

By period:


Robin Fleming, “Pre-Conquest England,” Oxford Bibliographies: Medieval Studies.

David A. Hinton, “Medieval Archaeology in Britain, Fifth to Eleventh Centuries,” Oxford Bibliographies: Medieval Studies.

Companion to the Early Middle Ages: Britain and Ireland, c. 500-1100, ed. Pauline Stafford (Oxford, 2009). 

Wilfred Bonser, An Anglo-Saxon and Celtic Bibliography 450-1087, 2 vols. (Berkeley CA, 1957). Particularly strong on history and archaeology.

The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England, 2nd ed, ed. Michael Lapidge et al. (Oxford, 2013). Comprehensive coverage; brief entries with select bibliography.

Simon Keynes, Anglo-Saxon England: A Bibliographical Handbook for Students of Anglo-Saxon History (Cambridge, 2006).


Anglo-Saxon England (1972- ). (shelved behind the circulation desk). Bibliographical supplement to periodical.

Old English Newsletter (1967- ). Summer issues include annual bibliography; Winter issues include “The Year’s Work in Old English Studies.”


The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: A Collaborative Edition, gen. ed. David Dumville (1995- ). 

Anglo-Saxon Chronicles Online (British Library; digital facsimiles of Chronicles B C D F).


The Electronic Sawyer: Online Catalogue of Anglo-Saxon Charters

ASChart: Anglo-Saxon Charters. Includes a Bibliography.


Joel Rosenthal, “Post-Conquest England,” Oxford Bibliographies: Medieval Studies.

Emily Zack Tabuteau, “Anglo-Norman Realm,” Oxford Bibliographies: Medieval Studies.

Anne Curry, “Hundred Years War,” Oxford Bibliographies.

David A. Hinton, “Medieval Archaeology in Britain, Twelfth to Fifteenth Centuries,” Oxford Bibliographies: Medieval Studies.

Medieval England 1066-1399. (ORB bibliography).

Michael Altschul, Anglo-Norman England 1066-1154, Conference on British Studies Bibliographical Handbooks (Cambridge, 1969).

Bertie Wilkinson, The High Middle Ages in England, 1154-1377, Conference on British Studies Bibliographical Handbooks (Cambridge, 1978).

Delloyd J. Guth, Late-Medieval England 1377-1485, Conference on British Studies Bibliographical Handbooks (Cambridge, 1976).

Joel T. Rosenthal, Late Medieval England: A Bibliography of Historical Scholarship (1975-1989) (Kalamazoo MI, 1994).  Continued by following item; both have an index of authors but not of subjects, so you must browse the appropriate sections.

Joel T. Rosenthal, Late Medieval England (1377-1485): A Bibliography of Historical Scholarship, 1990-1999 (Kalamazoo MI, 2003). 

W. H. Chaloner and R. C. Richardson, Bibliography of British Economic and Social History, 3rd ed. (Manchester, 1996). Selective coverage for the periods 1066-1300 and 1300-1500.

Records of the Social and Economic History of England and Wales (1914-35); continued by Records of Social and Economic History (1970- ).

Historical Dictionary of Late Medieval England, 1272-1485, ed. Ronald H. Fritze and William B. Robinson (Westport CN, 2002).  Substantial entries on major persons and subjects (e.g., Friars, Monasticism, Parliament, Women) with brief but up-to-date references. Includes a general Bibliography (pp. 611-22) and a thorough subject index.

Michael A. Hicks, Who’s Who in Late Medieval England 1272-1485 (Mechanicsburg PA, 1991).

Jean-Philippe Genet, Le Dictionnaire des auteurs actifs dans les champs de l’histoire et de la politique en Angleterre de 1300 – 1600.

A Companion to Britain in the Later Middle Ages, ed. S. H. Rigby (Oxford, 2003). 9 28 essays with bibliographical references grouped under the headings “Economy and Society in Town and Country”; “Politics, Government and Law”; “The Church and Piety”; “Education and Culture”; includes a cumulative Bibliography of secondary sources and an index.

Guides to Sources:

M. T. Clanchy, From Memory to Written Record: England 1066-1307, 3rd ed. (Oxford, 2012). Has two major sections:  “The Making of Records” and “The Literate Mentality.”

G. R. Elton, England, 1200-1640 (Ithaca NY, 1969). Guide to primary (esp. documentary) sources, including narratives, state and church records, private materials, law, books and writings, and non-documentary sources.

Hannes Kleineke, “Sources for Representative Institutions,” in Understanding Medieval Primary Sources, ed. Rosenthal, pp. 210-24.

Philip Slavin, “The Sources for Manorial and Rural History,” in Understanding Medieval Primary Sources, ed. Rosenthal, pp. 131-48.

W. B. Stephens, Sources for English Local History, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, 1981).  Use the index to locate references to types of documents, e.g. “manor and manorial records,” “parish and parish records.”

National Archives, Medieval and Early Modern History Research Guide

Public Records (“Some Notes on English Medieval Genealogy” with links and bibliography).

Anglo-American Legal Tradition: Documents from Medieval and Early Modern England from the National Archives in London

English Medieval Legal Documents Wiki. Requires free registration.

Pierre Chaplais, English Diplomatic Practice in the Middle Ages (London, 2013). 


Mary-Rose McLaren, The London Chronicles of the Fifteenth Century: A Revolution in English Writing, With an Annotated Edition of Bradford, West Yorkshire Archives MS 32D86/42 (Cambridge, 2002). 



Robert F. Berkhofer, “[Medieval] France,” Oxford Bibliographies: Medieval Studies.

Robert F. Berkhofer, “Regions of Medieval France,” Oxford Bibliographies: Medieval Studies.

Sarah-Grace Heller, “Paris,” Oxford Bibliographies.

Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, ed. William W. Kibler and Grover A. Zinn (New York, 1995).

Dictionnaire de la France médiévale, ed. Jean Favier (Paris, 1993).

SHMES Bibliographie: Société des Historiens Médiévistes de l’Énseignement Supérieur Public. See especially section 11: la France–généralités et régions.

Frankreich im Mittelalter von der Merowingerzeit bis zum Tode Ludwigs IX (5./6. Jahrhundert bis 1270). Neuerscheinungen von 1961-1979, Historische Zeitschrift, Sonderheft 11 (1982).

Late Medieval France (ORB Bibliography)

La base BÈDE (Bibliographie des Editions et Etudes de sources documentaires françaises médiévales)

Rob’s Norman Bibliography

Tabularia. Sources écrits de la Normandie médiévale. Includes a “Chronique bibliographique” for 2000-2005.


Bibliographe annuelle de l’histoire de France (1987- ). (1987-99). See the topically-organized “Index chronologique–Moyen Age.”  Online database in preparation.

Bibliographie de l’histoire médiévale en France (1965-1990), ed. Michel Balard (Paris, 1992).

Archival databases:

BEDE:  Bibliographie des études diplomatiques et éditions d’actes et documents du Moyen Âge français (Olivier Guyotjeannin)

Calames: Online Catalogues of Archives and Manuscripts in French University and Research Libraries

Catalogue collectif de France: Manuscrits et archives

Bibliothèque nationale de France: Archives et manuscrit

COSME2: Consortium Sources Médiévales: Archives de catégorie: Sources diplomatiques et documents d’archives. Sponsored projects include Cartulaires numérisés d’Île-de-France; Chartae Galliae/CHARCIS; La numérisation des archives normandes conservées au Musée Bénédictine de Fécamp; Corpus Burgundiae Medii Aevi; Catalogue des actes des fils de Philippe le Bel (1314-1328); Lettres originals de Jean XXII; and Les actes royaux relatifs au Poitou

The Gascon Rolls project 1317-1468

Guides to sources:

R. H. Bautier, “Les sources documentaires de l’histoire de France au Moyen Âge: Recherche, publication et exploitation,” in Tendances, perspectives et méthodes de l’histoire médiévale – Actes du 100e congrès des sociétés savantes (Paris, 1977), pp. 215-48.

Auguste Molinier, Les sources de l’histoire de France des origines aux guerres d’Italie (1494), 6 vols. (New York, 1901-06). Antiquated but not entirely superceded.

Robert Fawtier, Les sources de l’histoire de France des origines à la fin du XVe siècle (Paris, 1971). Intended to replace Molinier.

R. H. Bautier, “L’historiographie en France aux Xe et XIe siècles (France du Nord et de l’Est),” in La storiografia altomedievale, 2 vols., Settimane di Studio sull’alto medioevo 17 (Spoleto, 1970), II, 793-855. 

E. R. Labande, “L’historiographie en France de l’Ouest aux Xe et XIe,” in La storiografia altomedievale, 2 vols., Settimane di Studio sull’alto medioevo 17 (Spoleto, 1970), II, 751-91. 

M. Hébert, “Les assemblées répresentatives de la France médiévale: quelques remarques sur les sources,” Parliaments, Estates and Representation 16 (1996), 17-29. 

Henri Stein, Bibliographie générale des cartulaires français ou relatifs à l’histoire de France, Manuels de bibliographie historique 4 (Paris, 1907). 

See also under VII. Ancillary Disciplines–Diplomatics.

Collections of historical sources:

Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France. Rerum Gallicarum et Francicarum scriptores, ed M. Bouquet et al., 24 vols. (Paris, 1738-1833; 2nd ed. 1896-1904). 

Les classiques de l’histoire de France au Moyen Âge, ed. L. Halphen et al. (Paris, 1932- ) ; continued as Classiques d’histoire au Moyen Âge, ed Philippe Depreux.


See Goetz, Proseminar, and Heit and Voltmer, Bibliographie, for detailed listings; the standard reference works are:


Repertorium Geschichtsquellen des deutschen Mittelalters. Covers narrative historical sources relating to the German-speaking realms between 750 and 1500. Materials drawn from the Repertorium fontium and updated. Includes lists of sources by Author and Text; a Thesaurus of places, keywords, textual transmission (including editions), religious houses, saints, and persons.

Reallexikon der germanischen Altertumskunde2nd ed. Heinrich Beck et al. (Berlin, 1973- ).  Online version:  Germanische Altertumskunde Online.  List of articles.

Medieval Germany: An Encyclopedia, ed. John M. Jeep (New York, 2001).

Dahlmann/Waitz, Quellenkunde zur deutschen Geschichte, 16 vols., 10th ed. Hermann Heimpel and Herbert Geuss (Stuttgart, 1965-99).  Bibliographical coverage through 1960, with some later references. Organized by book and section number: I.158-IV.274 cover Germanic prehistory through the late Middle Ages. Includes three volumes of indices. Use the alphabetical subject indices in vol. 12, Wegweiser, to locate the relevant book and number.

Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen im Mittelalter. In three series, with 2nd editions of certain volumes: Vorzeit und Karolinger, 6 vols., ed. W. Wattenbach, W. Levison, and H. Löwe, ; rev. ed. Frühzeit und Karolinger, 2 vols., ed. Franz Huf (Kettwig, 1991) ; Die Zeit der Sachsen und Salier, 3 vols., ed. W. Wattenbach and R. Holtzmann, with rev. ed. of vol. 3 by F.-J. Schmale, ; Vom Tode Heinrichs V bis zum Ende des Interregnums, ed. W. Wattenbach and F.-J. Schmale, 1 vol. to date.

John Eldevik, Medieval Germany: Research and Resources, German Historical Institute, Research Guides 21, 2006. Superb, wide-ranging, annotated.

Bayern und Franken im Frühmittelalter, by Dieter Weiß.

Jonathan W. Zophy, An Annotated Bibliography of the Holy Roman Empire, Bibliographies and Indexes in World History 3 (New York, 1986).

Carl A. Willemsen, Bibliographie zur Geschichte Kaiser Friedrichs II. und der letzten Staufer, MGH Hilfsmittel 8 (Munich, 1986).

For later medieval German history see W. Dotzauer, Quellenkunde zur deutschen Geschichte im Spätmittelalter (1350-1500) (Darmstadt, 1996).

Alphons Lhotsky, Quellenkunde zur mittelalterlichen Geschichte Österreichs, Mitteilungen des Instituts für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung, Ergänzungsband 19 (Graz, 1963).

J.-L. Santschy, Manuel de bibliographie générale de l’histoire suisse (Bern, 1961). 


Jahresberichte für deutsche Geschichte, Neue Folge (Berlin, 1949- ). Comprehensive, extremely well indexed. The on-line database can be searched by keyword, author, or title and can be restricted by period (“Mittelalter”).

Österreichische Historische Bibliographie


Bibliographie der Schweizergeschichte (Bern, 1913- ). 

Archival databases:

Regesta Database.  Searchable database of “more than 130.000 regesta of ruler and papal deeds from the Carolingians up to Maximilian I. (751-1519).”  List of editions covered.

Repertorium Germanicum. Verzeichnis der in den Registern und Kameralakten vorkommenden Personen, Kirchen und Orte des Deutschen Reiches, seiner Diözesen und Territorien. “The Repertorium Germanicum comprises each German repertory from all Vatican register series and Cameral holdings, from the Great Schism (1378) to the Reformation (1517). To date, work has progressed until 1484.”

Collections of sources:

Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Coverage is much broader than “Germany.”  For a complete list of the subseries and volumes see the Gesamtverzeichnis 2007. The website includes an Online digital facsimile of the series. Also available as a full-text Brepols database (see the User’s Guide).

Ausgewählte Quellen zur Geschichte des Mittelalters: Freiherr vom Stein-Gedächtnisausgabe (Darmstadt, 1956- ).

Bibliotheca Rerum Germanicarum, 6 vols., ed. Ph. Jaffé (Berlin, 1864-73). 

Fontes rerum Austriacarum, I: Scriptores (Vienna, 1855- ); II:  Diplomaria et Acta (Vienna, 1849- ). 


Olivia Remie Constable, “Spain,” Oxford Bibliographies: Medieval Studies.

Medieval Iberia: An Encyclopedia, ed. E. Michael Gerli (New York, 2003).

Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources, ed. Olivia Remie Constable with Damian Zurro, 2nd ed. (Philadelphia, 2012).

James A. Grabowska, “Iberian Studies,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 678-85.

Mark T. Abate, “Islamic Spain: Al-Andalus in the Three Cultures,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 740-71.

M. Huete Fudio, La historiografia latina medieval en la Península Ibérica, Siglos VIII-XII: Fuentes y Bibliografía (Madrid, 1997). 

LIBRO: The Library of Iberian Resources Online

AARHMS: The American Academy of Research Historians of Medieval Spain. Includes pages of References and Links.

Alberto Ferreiro, The Visigoths in Gaul and Spain, A.D. 418-711: A Bibliography (Leiden, 1988). . With A Supplemental Bibliography 1984-2003 (2006); and online Supplements for 2004-2006; 2007-20092010-2012.

Recent Bibliography on the Visigoths

Antonio Henrique R. de Oliveira Marques, Guia do estudante de historia medieval portuguesa, second ed. (Lisbon, 1979). 

Portugaliae Monumenta historica a saeculo octavo post Christum usque ad quintum decimum, 6 vols. (Lisbon, 1856-97). 

Dicionário de História de Portugal, ed. Joel Serrão, 6 vols. (Porto, 1990). 

The Historiography of Medieval Portugal (c. 1950-2010), dir. José Mattoso, ed. Maria de Lurdes Rosa et al. 

Medieval Portugal (ORB Bibliographies)

Tiago João Queimada e Silva, “Chronicle-Composition in Medieval Portugal: A General Outline,” Mirator 15.1 (2015),  33-47


Índice Histórico Español (Barcelona, 1953- ). See the section “Edad Media.”


Hermann Kulke, Bibliography of India History up to 1750.

Iqutidar Alam Khan, Historical Dictionary of Medieval India (London, 2008). 

Daud Ali, Courtly Culture and Political Life in Early Medieval India (Cambridge, 2004).

Richard EatonIndia in the Persianate Age, 1000-1765 (London, 2019).

India’s Islamic Traditions, 711-1750, ed. Richard Eaton (New Delhi, 2002).

Elizabeth LambournAbraham’s Luggage: A Social Life of Things in the Medieval Indian Ocean World (Cambridge, 2018).

Kirti Chaudhuri, Trade and Civilisation in the Indian Ocean: An Economic History from the Rise of Islam to 1750 (Cambridge, 1985).

Kirti Chaudhuri, Asia before Europe: Economy and Civilization of the Indian Ocean from the Rise of Islam to 1750 Cambridge, 1990).


David Morgan, “Bibliographical Survey,” in Medieval Persia 1040-1797 (New York, 1988), pp. 162-76. 

Encyclopædia Iranica

See also under Islamic Civilization.


CODECS: Online Database and e-Resources for Celtic Studies (Stichting A. G. van Hamel voor Keltische Studies)


Sources: Database for Irish Research (National Library of Ireland).

Donnchadh Ó Corráin, Select Bibliography of Bibliographies in Medieval Irish Studies

CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts

Wilfrid Bonser, An Anglo-Saxon and Celtic Bibliography (450-1087), 2 vols. (Berkeley CA, 1957). 

T. W. Moody, ed., Irish Historiography, 1936-1970 (Dublin, 1971).

Joseph Lee, ed., Irish Historiography, 1970-1979 (Cork, 1981). 

Donnchadh Ó Corráin, “A Handlist of Publications on Early Irish History,” in Historical Studies X, ed. G. A. Hayes-McCoy (Dublin, 1976), pp. 172-203.

P. W. A. Asplin, Medieval Ireland c.1170-1495. A Bibliography of Secondary Works (Dublin, 1971). 


Irish History Online.  Database incorporates and continues material from two print serial bibliographies: Irish Historical Studies (1938-79). ; and Writings on Irish History (Dublin, 1938-2002). .  Those records, but not the continuations, are also included in the Bibliography of British and Irish History (see under England).

The Celtic Studies Association of North America Bibliography

Guides to Historical Sources:

Donnchadh Ó CorráinClavis Litterarum Hibernensium: Medieval Irish Books & Texts (c. 400 – c. 1600), 3 vols. (Turnhout, 2017).

Michael Lapidge and Richard Sharpe, A Bibliography of Celtc-Latin Literature 400-1200 (Dublin, 1984). In addition to named authors, see the anonymous works subdivisions “Historical Texts,” “Legislation,” and “Documents.”

James F. Kenney, Sources for the Early History of Ireland: Ecclesiastical, rev. ed. with addenda by Ludwig Bieler (New York, 1966).

Kathleen Hughes, Early Christian Ireland: Introduction to the Sources (Ithaca NY, 1972).

Kathryn Grabowski and David Dumville, Chronicles and Annals of Mediaeval Ireland and Wales (Woodbridge, 1984). 

D. P. Mc Carthy, The Irish Annals: Their Genesis, Evolution and History (Dublin, 2008). 

Philomena Connolly, Medieval Record Sources (Dublin, 2002). Cover archival sources from the 12th through 15th centuries. 


A New History of Ireland, ed. T. W. Moody et al. (Oxford, 1982- ): vol. 1, Prehistoric and Early Ireland, ed. Dáibhí Ó Cróinín (2008); vol. 2, Medieval Ireland 1169-1534, ed. Art Cosgrove (1987) ; vol. 8, A Chronology of Irish History to 1976 (1982) ; vol. 9, Maps, Genealogies, Lists (Oxford, 1984). ; Ancillary Publications, no. 1, P. W. A. Asplin, Medieval Ireland, c. 1170-1495: A Bibliography of Secondary Works (Dublin, 1971). 

Dáibhí Ó Cróinín, Early Medieval Ireland 400-1200, 2nd ed. (New York, 2017). 

T. M. Charles-Edwards, Early Christian Ireland (Cambridge, 2000). 


A. D. M. Barrell, Medieval Scotland (Cambridge, 2000). 

A. O. Anderson, Early Sources of Scottish History, A.D. 500-1286, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1922). 

B. Webster, Scotland from the Eleventh Century to 1603, The Sources of History (London, 1975). 

Scottish Bibliographies Online (National Library of Scotland)

People of Medieval Scotland 1093-1314

National Records of Scotland

The Records of the Parliament of Scotland

Women in Scottish History Database

Scottish Archaeological Research Framework: Medieval Bibliography


A Bibliography of Wales (Aberystwyth, 1985/86- ) . Continuation of Biblioteca Celtica: A Register of Publications Relating to Wales and the Celtic Peoples and Languages (Aberystwyth, 1910-1981/84).

A Bibliography of the History of Wales (Microfiche & Book), 3rd ed. comp. Philip Henry Jones (Cardiff, 1989).

Welsh History Review

Dictionary of Welsh Biography

R. Ian Jack, Medieval Wales, The Sources of History (London, 1972). 

R. R. Davies, The Age of Conquest: Wales 1063-1415 (Oxford, 1991). 

David Walker, Medieval Wales (Cambridge, 1990). 

A. D. Carr, Medieval Wales (London, 1995). 

The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales, ed. John Davies et al. (Cardiff, 2008). 

National Library of Wales.  See especially Archives and Manuscripts.

National Library of Wales. Guide to the Department of Manuscripts and Records. (Aberystwyth, 1994). 


AlKindi: Library of the Dominican Institute for Oriental Studies

Middle East Virtual Library

Access to Mideast and Islamic Resources

Oxford Bibliographies-Islamic Studies

Index Islamicus. Covers book, articles, and reviews.

The Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition, 11 vols. and supplements (Leiden, 1954- ). 

Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, ed. Joseph W. Meri, 2 vols. (New York, 2006).

“Arabic and Islamic Studies,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 3-104.

R. Stephen Humphreys,Eurasia and the Realm of Islam,” Journal of English and Germanic Philology 105 (2006), 44-60. 

C. Cahen, Introduction à la histoire du monde musulman médiévale, VIIe-XVe siècle. Méthodologie et éléments de bibliographie (Paris, 1983).

Christian-Muslim Relations: A Bibliographical History, 13 vols., ed. David Thomas et al. (Leiden, 2009-19). Vols. 1-5 cumulatively cover the period 600-1500.

Medieval History of the Middle East (Cornell).

Oxford Islamic Studies Online

The Medieval Islamicate World (ARC Humanities Press series)

See also the sections “Islam” in IMB and “Rapporti con le culture non latine–Islamica” in Medioevo Latino.


Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia, ed. Christopher Kleinhenz, 2 vols. (New York, 2003).

Medieval Italy: Texts In Translation, ed. Katherine Ludwig Jansen, Joanna H. Drell, and Frances Andrews (Philadelphia, 2009).

Richard Ring, “Lombards in Italy,” Oxford Bibliographies.

Italian History and Literature, 2 vols., Widener Library Shelflist 51-52 (Cambridge MA, 1974). 

Paolo Cammarosan, Italia medievale: struttura e geografia delle fonti scritte (Rome, 1991).

Ettore Falconi, Bibliografia delle fonti documentarie medievali: con particolare riferimento ai territori di Piacenza, Parma, Reggio e Modena (Modena, 1965). 

Ugo Balzani, Le cronache italiane nel medio evo (Milan, 1909).

Chronicling History: Chroniclers and Historians in Medieval and Renaissance Italy, ed. Sharon Dale et al. (University Park PA, 2007).


Archivio storico italiano 

Bibliografia storica nazionale (Bari, 1939- ). See section E., “Storia medievale.”

Emeroteca storica italiana: Rassegna bibliografica annuale degli articoli di argomento storico pubblicati in Italia su Riviste e Atti di Convegni (1995- ). Organized alphatetically by author rather than topically; consult the index for references under the heading “Medio Evo” (subdivided into “Regioni Italiani”; “Italia”; “Paesi Europei”; “Paesi Extraeuropei”, each in turn subdivided into fifteen topical headings, e.g. “Dinasti, Popoli”; Usi, Costumi e Tradizioni”; Storia Economica e Sociale”; etc.).

Repertories and Collections of Sources:

Paolo Cammarosano, Italia medievale: Strutture e geografia delle fonti scritte (Rome, 1992). 

B. Capesso, Le fonti della storia della provincia napoletana dal 586 al 1500, ed. E. O. Maistroianni (Naples, 1902). 

U. Balzani, Le cronache italiane nel medio evo, 3rd ed. (Milan, 1909). 

Rerum italicarum scriptores, 15 vols., ed. A. Muratori (1723-51); continued by II. Serie, 33 vols. (1900-75)III Serie (2000- )

Fonti per la Storia d’Italia (1887-1999); continued by Fonti per la storia d’Italia medievale (1994- )


Italian Medieval History

Centro di Ricerca sulle Istituzioni e le Società Medievali

Associazione Medioevo Italiano

Reti medievali: Dizionario bibliografico della medievistica italiana

Medieval Kingdom of Sicily Image Database: A Visual Resource of Historical Sites c. 1100 – c. 1450

Rulers of Venice, 1332-1524. Interpretations, Methods, Database

Bibliografia Statutaria Italiana (Rome, 1985- ).


DGA: Direzione Generale Archivi

SAN: Sistema archivistico nazionale

Sistema Guida generale degli Archivi di Stato italiani

Le fonti archivistiche: catalogo delle guide e degli inventari editi (1861-1991)

Archivio di Stato di Firenze. Includes “Mediceo avanti il Principato.”


Codice dipliomatico della Lombardia medievale (secoli VIII – XI)

AR.C.H.I.ves: A Comparative History of Archives in Late Medieval and Early Modern Italy

Archivi storici delle famiglie: The Florentine patrician families’s private archives

Baldo degli Ubaldi: Studi e Documenti


Barbara Stevenson, “Japan, Medieval,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 749-56.

Noriko Asato, Handbook for Asian Studies Specialists: A Guide to Research Materials and Collection Building Tools: A Guide to Research Materials and Collection Building Tools (Santa Barbara CA, 2013). 

John W. Dower, Japanese History & Culture from Ancient to Modern Times: Seven Basic Bibliographies, 2nd ed. (Princeton NJ, 1995). 

The Cambridge History of Japan, ed. John Whitney Hall, 6 vols. (Cambridge, 1988-99). 



Jewish Studies Source (EBSCO)

Index to Jewish Periodicals (EBSCO)

RAMBI: The Index of Articles on Jewish Studies

Merhav. National Library of Israel database.

Jean Baumgarten, “Jewish Studies,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 756-70. 

Jeremy Cohen, “On Medieval Judaism and Medieval Studies,” in The Past and Future of Medieval Studies, ed. John van Engen (Notre Dame IN, 1994), pp. 73-93.

Bibliographical Essays in Medieval Jewish Studies, Lawrence V. Berman, et al., contribb., The Study of Judaism, v. 2 (New York, 1976).

Medieval Jewish Civilization: An Encyclopedia, ed. Norman Roth (New York, 2003).

Ivan G. Marcus, ed., Medieval Jewish Civilization: A Multi-Disciplinary Curriculum, Bibliographies, and Selected Syllabi (New York, 1988).

Encyclopedia Judaica Online

Encyclopaedia Judaica, 16 vols. (New York, 1971). 

A. Graboïs, Les sources hébraïques médiévales, Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental 6 (Turnhout, 1973). 

The Cambridge History of Judaism, vol. 4: The Late Roman-Rabbinic Period, ed. Steven T. Katz (Cambridge, 2004).

Paul Szarmach, ed., Aspects of Jewish Culture in the Middle Ages (Albany NY, 1979).

Haim Bernart, Atlas of Medieval Jewish History (New York, 1992).

A Selective Bibliography of the Medieval Anglo-Jewry, c. 1070-1290.

Bibliography for Research in Medieval Rabbinic Judaism.

Bibliography of Khazar Studies (1901-Present), by Kevin Alan Brook.

See also the sections “Hebrew and Jewish Studies” in IMB and “Rapporti con le culture non latine–Giudaica” in Medioevo Latino.


Bibliography of Khazar Studies (1901-present), compiled by Kevin Alan Brook.


Realencylopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, ed. A. G. von Pauly and G. Wissowa (Stuttgart, 1894- ). Comprised of two series (All to Quosenus, 24 vols. in 47 pts. 1894-1963; Ra to Zythos, 10 vols. in 19 pts., 1914-1972)  plus a supplement (10 vols. in 19 pts., 1903-1978). For a comprehensive index see the Gesamtregister I. Alphabetischer Teil, ed. T. Erler et al. (Stuttgart, 1997).  The first three volumes of Der Neue Pauly: Enzyklopädie der Antike have appeared.

Reallexikon der germanischen Altertumskunde, rev. 2nd ed., 35 vols. and 2 index volumes, ed. H. Beck et al. (Berlin, 1968- ).  Now available as a database, Germanische Altertumskunde Online. See the Keyword List. Also supplemented by a series of Ergänzungsbände.

Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung (Berlin, 1972- ). Extensive series of collections of essays organized chronological and thematically. There is a print index of articles up to 1996 and a searchable on-line index.

Clavis Historicorum Antiquitatis Posterioris (CHAP). Inventories “all historiographical works of Late Antiquity (300 until 800 AD) in Latin, Greek, Syriac, Armenian, Georgian, Arabic, Coptic and, to a lesser extent, Hebrew, Aramaic and Persian.” Print version forthcoming as Clavis Historicorum Antiquitatis Posterioris: An inventory of Late Antique historiography (A.D. 300-800), ed. Peter Van Nuffelen and Liere Van Hoof (Turnhout, 2019).

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity, 2 vols., ed. Oliver Nicholson (Oxford, 2018).

Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity, ed. Scott Fitzgerald Johnson (Oxford, 2012). 

Eric Rebillard, “Roman History: Late Antiquity,” Oxford Bibliographies.

ORBIS: The Stanford Geospatial Network Model of the Roman World

ORB Late Antiquity Bibliographies

Worlds of Late Antiquity, by James O’Donnell.

Franz Joseph Dölger-Institut zur Erforschung der Spätantike

Frantiq: Fédération et Ressources sur l’Antiquité

Oxford Centre for Late Antiquity

Women in Late Antiquty (apart from Egypt): A Bibliography.  Appendix to A Companion to Women in the Ancient World, ed. Sharon L. James and Sheila Dillon (Oxford, 2012). 

The Making of Charlemagne’s Europe.  “The aim of the project is two-fold: The first aim is to offer a single, unified database framework for the extraction of prosopographical and socio-economic data found in early medieval legal documents. … The second aim is to apply this framework to legal documents surviving from the reign of Charlemagne (25 September 768 to 28 January 814 AD).

Gregory L. Halfond, “Pre-Carolingian Western European Kingdoms,” Oxford Bibliographies.

Capitularia: Edition of the Frankish Capitularies. Includes a Bibliography of editions and translations, literature, and manuscript catalogues.

Regnum Francorum Online

After Empire: Using and Not Using the Past in the Crisis of the Carolingian World, c. 900-1050. Includes a Primary Source List for the period 850-1050.

Carolingian Polyptyques. Translations of ten inventories with glossary, map, index of persons, worksheets, and bibliography.

Pierre Riché, Dictionnaire des Francs: les temps mérovingiens (Etrépilly, 1996).

Thomas F. X. Noble, “Carolingian Era,” Oxford Bibliographies: Medieval Studies. 

Giovanni Isabella, “La dinastia ottomana, i regni e l’impero,” Reti Medievali

See also under headings for particular countries and regions.


Frederik Buylaert, “Low Countries,” Oxford Bibliographies: Medieval Studies

Martha L. Brogan, Research Guide to Libraries and Archives in the Low Countries (New York, 1991). 

The Medieval Low Countries (2014- ) 

Huygens ING. Includes extensive list of digital resources for the medieval period.

Diplomata Belgica. Les sources diplomatiques des Pays-Bas méridionaux au Moyen Âge. The Diplomatic Sources from the Medieval Southern Low Countries

Archivalia uit de Baltische landen met betrekking tot de Nederlandse geschiedenis 1191-1792

Archivalia uit Italië met betrekking tot de geschiedenis van Nederland 649-1850

The Narrative Sources from the Medieval Low Countries

R. Nip, “Changing Demands, Changing Tools: A Survey of Narrative Historical Sources, Written during the Middle Ages in the Northern Low Countries,” in Medieval Narrative Sources, ed. Verbeke, pp. 1-20. 

Biografisch Portaal van Nederland


Bibliography of Belgian History (1952- ) in pdf; online searchable Bibliography of the History of Belgium.

Belgica. Digitale Bibliotheek van de Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België

Commission royal d’Histoire

Belgian State Archives

The Netherlands:

Digitale Bibliografie Nederlandse Geschiedenis

Contactgroep Signum. “Signum is een contactgroep voor sociaal-economische en institutioneel-juridische geschiedenis van geestelijke en kerkelijke instellingen in de Nederlanden in de Middeleeuwen.” Includes a Bibliography of over 5,000 items.

H. de Buck, Bibliografie der geschiedenis van nederland, 2nd. ed. (Utrecht, 1979). 

Digitale Charterbank Nederland


The Online Bibliography of Ottoman-Turkish Literature

Eric R. Dursteler, “Ottoman Empire,” Oxford Bibliographies.

Stanford J. Shaw and Gökhan Çetinsaya, “Ottoman Empire,” in The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford Islamic Studies Online.

Suraiya N. FaroqhiApproaching Ottoman History: An Introduction to the Sources (Cambridge, 1999).

Stanford J. Shaw, “Bibliography: Ottoman History to 1808,” in History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, 
Volume 1, Empire of the Gazis: The Rise and Decline of the Ottoman Empire 1280–1808 (Cambridg, 1976), pp. 302-324

The Ottoman World, ed. Christine Woodhead (New York, 2012).

Selcuk Aksin Somel, The A to Z of the Ottoman Empire (London, 2010). 

Gabor Agoston and Bruce Masters, Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire (New York, 2009).

Halil Inalcik, The Ottoman Empire: The Classical Age, 1300-1600, trans. Norman Itzkowitz and Colin Imber (London, 2000).

Economic History of the Ottoman Empire


Martin Syrett, Scandinavian History in the Viking Age: A Select Bibliography, 3rd ed., rev. H. Antonsson and Jonathan Grove (Cambridge: ASNC, 2004). 

Medieval Scandinavia: An Encyclopedia, ed. Phillip Pulsiano (New York, 1993).

Kulturhistorisk Leksikon for Nordisk Medelalder fra vikingetid til reformationstid, 22 vols. (Copenhagen, 1956-78).

Hans-Bekker Nielsen, Old-Norse Icelandic Studies (Toronto, 1967).

Nancy L. Wicker, “Vikings,” Oxford Medieval Bibliographies.

Brian Patrick McGuire, A Guide to Medieval Denmark (Copenhagen, 1994).

Dansk Historisk Bibliografi Online 1990-

WALES: with Ireland, above.

Daud Ali, “The Historiography of the Medieval in South Asia,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 22 (2012), 7-12.

Maureen L. P.  Patterson, South Asian Civilizations: A Bibliographical Synthesis (Chicago, 1981). See Part I, chap. 4: “Early ‘Medieval’ South Asia, 600-1526 AD: Emergence of Regional Traditions and Penetration of Islam.”

The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia: vol. I/1: From Early Times to c.1500, ed. Nicholas Tarling (Cambridge, 1994).

Victor Lieberman, Strange Parallels: Southeast Asia in Global Context, c. 800–1830. Vol. 1: Integration on the MainlandVol. 2: Mainland Mirrors: Europe, Japan, China, Southeast Asia, and the Islands (Cambridge, 2003-09).

Jason D. Hawkes, “Finding the ‘Early Medieval’ in South Asian Archaeology,” Asian Perspectives 53 (2014), 53-96.


For Syria in the Islamic period see Islamic Civilization above.

A Comprehensive Bibliography on Syriac Christianity An annotated bibliography of Syriac resources online The Syriac Reference Portal

Sebastian Brock, An Introduction to Syriac Studies, 3rd ed. (Piscataway NJ, 2016).

Sebastian Brock, Syriac Studies: A Classified Bibliography (1960-1990) (Kaslik, 1996).

Kristian S. Heal, “Corpora, eLibraries and Databases: Locating Syriac Studies in the 21st Century,” Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies15 (2012), 65-78.

The Syriac World, ed. Daniel King (New York, 2018).

Languages and Cultures of Eastern Christianity: Syriac (East), ed. Muriel Debié and David Taylor, The Worlds of Eastern Christianity, 300-1500 (Farnham, Surrey, forthcoming).

Languages and Cultures of Eastern Christianity: Syriac (West), ed. David Taylor, The Worlds of Eastern Christianity, 300-1500 (Farnham, Surrey, forthcoming).

Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies (1998- ). Many issues includes sections on “Recent Publications on Syriac Topics” and “Bibliography of Syriac and Christian Arabic Studies in Russian.”

VI. Topical Bibliographies

The following is a small selection only. For a list of further topical bibliographies, see Medieval Latin, ed. Mantello and Rigg, pp. 27-31. In the on-line version IMB you can find topical bibliographies by entering “bibliography” in the “All Index Fields” and the subject (e.g., “monasticism”) in the “Subjects” field. Internet search-engines such as Google can also be used to locate topical bibliographies on the web; remember to search topics not only in English but also in the other major European research languages. The major Internet gateways for medieval studies also provide links to specialized bibliographies. See especially ORB’s specialized bibliographies.


Christoper Landon, “Archeology in Medieval Studies,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 104-17.

David Whitehouse, “Archaeology,” in Medieval Studies, ed. Powell, pp. 162-84.

Medieval Archaeology: An Encyclopedia, ed. Pam J. Crabtree (New York, 2001). 

The Archaeology of Medieval Europe, 2 vols.:  1: Eighth to Twelfth Centuries, ed. James Graham-Campbell (Aarhus, 2007); 2: Twelfth to Sixteenth Centuries, ed. Martin Carver and Jan Klápste (Aarhus, 2011). 

The Oxford Companion to Archaeology, 2nd. ed., ed. N. A. Silberman et al., 3 vols. (Oxford, 2012). 

British and Irish Archaeological Bibliography (Archaeological Data Service)

Medieval Archaeology (1957- ).  First 50 volumes in digital form

Archaeology, by James. W. Marchand (WEMSK 21).

ArchReal: Archäologische Kleinfunddatenbank zur mittelalterlichen Realienkunde Database of Irish Excavation Reports

See also Whitehouse in Medieval Studies, ed. Powell, pp. 162-84.


Benjamin McRee,”Towns and Cities in Medieaval England,” Oxford Bibliographies.”

Piero Majocchi, “Le città europee nell’alto medioevo tra storia e archeologia (secoli V-X),” Reti Medievali.

Johannes Bernweiser, “Cities,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 187-202.

Augusto Vasina, “Medieval Urban Historiography in Western Europe,” in Historiography in the Middle Ages, ed. Deliyannis, pp. 317-52. 

Caroline M. Barron, “The Sources for Medieval Urban History,” in Understanding Medieval Primary Sources, ed. Rosenthal, pp. 163-76. 

Carol Rawcliffe, “Sources for the Study of Public Health in Medieval Cities,” in Understanding Medieval Primary Sources, ed. Rosenthal, pp. 176-95. 

E. M. C. Van Houts, Local and Regional Chronicles, Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental 74 (Turnhout, 1995). 

Elenchus fontium historiae urbanae, ed. C. van de Klieft and G. van Herwijnen, 2 vols. in 3 parts (Leiden, 1967-88). Selected primary sources; covers German, Belgian, Scandinavian, French, British and Irish urban history. 

Studies in European Urban History (Brepols series)

Historia urbium: International Commission for the History of Towns

See also the section “Stadtgeschichte” in Schuler, Grundbibliographie.


Alan V. Murray, “Bibliography of the First Crusade,” in From Claremont to Jerusalem: The Crusades and Crusader Societies, ed. Alan V. Murray (Turnhout, 1998), pp. 267-310.

Corliss K. Slack, The A to Z of the Crusades (London, 2009). 

Andrew Holt, “The Crusades,” Oxford Bibliographies.

Luigi Russo, “Le crociate,” Reti Medievali

Marco Meschini, “Bibliografia delle crociate albigesi,” Reti Medievali 7 (2006), 1-57.

Andrew Holt, “Crusades Historiography,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 369-79.

John France, “Crusading Warfare,” Oxford Bibliographies.

Alfred J. Andrea, Encyclopedia of the Crusades (Westport CN, 2003).

H. E. Mayer, Bibliographie zur Geschichte der Kreuzzüge (Hannover, 1960). Supplemented in Historische Zeitschrift, Sonderheft.

Aziz Suryal Atiya, Crusade: Historiography and Bibliography (Bloomington IN, 1962).

Crusades, Widener Library Shelflist 1 (Cambridge MA, 1965).

Kenneth M. Setton, gen. ed., A History of the Crusades, 6 vols. (Madison WI, 1969-89).  Full text of all six volumes, searchable and browsable, with a Select Bibliography in vol. 6, pp. 511-664.

The Crusades, by Paul Halsall.

Jürgen Sarnowsky, “Kreuzzüge und Ritterorden in der neueren Forschung,” in Die Aktualität des Mittelalters, ed. Hans-Werner Goetz (Bochum, 2000), pp. 25-55.

Economic History:

James Davis, “Economic History,” Oxford Bibliographies.

Matthew Kofi Ocran, “Medieval European Economies, AD 400–1500,” in Economic Development in the Twenty-first Century: Lessons for Africa throughout History, ed. Ocran, Palgrave Studies in Economic History (New York, 2019), pp. 133-58.

Philipp Robinson Rössner, “Money, Banking, Economy,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 1137-76.

Jeroen Puttivils, “Medieval Merchants,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 1039-56.

Robert Fossier, L’histoire économique et sociale du moyen âge occidental. Questions, sources, documents commentés, L’Atelier du médiéviste 6 (Turnhout, 1999).

Robert-Henri Bautier, Les Sources de l’histoire économique et sociale du Moyen âge, (Paris, 1968-84).

The Cambridge Economic History of Europe, 2nd ed., ed. M. M. Postan and H. J. Habakkuk, 6 vols. (Cambridge, 1966-77).

Peter Spufford, Handbook of Medieval Exchange (London, 1986).

Computatio, by Otto Volk. Site devoted to the history of accounting in the later Middle Ages and Early Modern period; includes a glossary and bibliography.

See also the section “Wirtschafts-und Technikgeschichte” in Schuler, Grundbibliographie.

Environmental History:

Stephen Mosley, “Environmental History,” Oxford Bibliographies..

Ellen F. Arnold, “An Introduction to Medieval Environmental History,” History Compass 6 (2008), 898-916.

Marilyn Sandidge, “The Forest, the River, the Mountain, the Field, and the Meadow,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 537-64.

Richard C. Hoffman, “Homo et Natura, Homo in Natura: Ecological Perspectives on the European Middle Ages,” in Engaging with Nature: Essays on the Natural World in Medieval and Early Modern Europe, ed. Barbara A. Hanawalt and Lisa J. Kiser (Notre Dame IN, 2008), pp. 11-38.

Michel Zink, “Nature in the Medieval World,” in Art and Nature in the Middle Ages, ed. Nicole Myers (New Haven CT, 2016), pp. 15-26.

The Environmental History Bibliography (Forest History Society).

Environmental History Network for the Middle Ages (ENFORMA).  Includes a Bibliography.

John Aberth, An Environmental History of the Middle Ages: The Crucible of Nature (London, 2013). 

Richard Hoffmann, An Environmental History of Medieval Europe (Cambridge, 2014). 

Ecologies and Economies in Medieval and Early Modern Europe, ed. Scott G. Bruce (Leiden, 2010). 

Feudalism, Warfare, Chivalry, Kingship/Queenship, Knighthood:

Constance B. Bouchard, “Feudalism,” Oxford Bibliographies.

Scott L. Taylor, “Feudalism in Literature and Society,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 465-76.

Philip Slavin, “Peasants,” Oxford Bibliographies.

Ben Snook, “War and Peace”; Ken Mondschein, “Weapons, Warfare, Siege Machinery, and Training in Arms,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 1735-57 and 1758-85.

K. Devries, A Cumulative Bibliography of Medieval Military History and Technology, Update 2003-2006 (Leiden, 2008). 

Everett U. Crosby, Medieval Warfare: A Bibliographical Guide (New York, 2000).

Bradford B. Broughton, Dictionary of Medieval Knighthood and Chivalry: People, Places and Events (New York, 1988).

John A. Geck, “Chivalry,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 1459-68.

Ken Mondschein, “Chivalry and Knighthood,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 159-71.

Miriam Shadis, “Queens,” Oxford Bibliographies.

E. Woodacre, “Medieval/Early Modern Queenship: An Annotated Bibliography”

See also the section “Stände und Gesellschaft” in Schuler, Grundbibliographie.


See the separate bibliography on Medieval Latin Literature.

Geographical Knowledge:

La Terre: Connaissance, représentations, mesure au moyen âge, ed. Patrick Gautier Dalché, L’Atelier du Médiéviste 13 (Turnhout, 2014).

Natalia Lozovsky, “The Earth is our Book”: Geographical Knowledge in the Latin West ca. 400-1000 (Ann Arbor MI, 2000).

Manfred Büttner, ed., Zur Entwicklung der Geographie vom Mittelalter bis zu Carl Ritter, Abhandlungen und Quellen zur Geschichte der Geographie und Kosmologie 3 (Paderborn, 1982).

Rudolf Simek, Heaven and Earth in the Middle Ages, trans. Angela Hall (Woodbridge, 1992).

John Kirtland Wright, Geographical Lore of the Time of the Crusades: A Study in the History of Medieval Science and Tradition in Western Europe. With a new introd. by Clarence J. Glacken (1925; repr. New York, 1965).

K. M. Barbour, The Geographical Knowledge of the Medieval Islamic World, Occasional Papers, Department of Geography, University College, London 22 (London, 1973). 

Health, Disease, and Medicine:

See also the section on Science and Technology, as well as the separate bibliographies on Medieval and Modern Manuscript Catalogues: Thematic: Medical; and Medieval Encyclopedias: Bestiaries, Lapidaries, and Herbals.

History of Science, Technology and Medicine (EBSCO database). Incorporates the Isis Current Bibliography of the History of Science, the Current Bibliography in the History of Technology, the Bibliografia Italiana di Storia della Scienza and the Wellcome Library for the History and Understanding of Medicine.

ISIS Cumulative Bibliography 1913-1975. See esp. Volume 4: Civilizations and Periods: Prehistory to Middle Ages; Volume 5: Civilizations and Periods: 15th to 19th Centuries.

Wellcome Library

Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine: Subject Catalogue of the History of Medicine and Related Sciences, 18 vols. (Munich, 1980).

Peter Murray Jones, “Medicine,” Oxford Bibliographies–Medieval Studies

Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia, ed. Thomas F. Glick, Steven J. Livesey, and Faith Wallis (New York, 2005). 

Luke Demaitre, Medieval Medicine: The Art of Healing, from Head to Toe (New York, 2013).

Peregrine Horden, “Medieval Medicine,” in The Oxford Handbook of the History of Medicine, ed. Mark Jackson (Oxford, 2011), pp.

Medieval Medicine: A Reader, ed. Faith Wallis (Toronto, 2010).

Marilyn Nicoud, Les régimes de santé au Moyen Âge: naissance et diffusion d’une écriture médicale, XIIIe-XVe siècle, 2 vols. (Rome, 2007). Table of Contents

Western Medical Thought from Antiquity to the Middle Ages, ed. Mirko D. Grmek (Cambridge MA, 1999).

Sheila Campbell, Bert Hall, David Klauser, Health, Disease, and Healing in Medieval Culture (New York, 1991).

Katharine Park, “Medicine and Society in Medieval Europe,” in Medicine in Society: Historical Essays, ed. A. Wear (Cambridge, 1992), pp. 59-90.

Nancy J. Siraisi, Medieval and Renaissance Medicine: Introduction to Knowledge and Medicine (Chicago, 1990). 

Monica Green, “Reconstructing Medieval Medical Libraries: Between the Codex and the Computer” 

Monica H. Green, Making Women’s Medicine Masculine: The Rise of Male Authority in Pre-Modern Gynaecology (Oxford, 2008).

Carol Rawcliffe, “Sources for the Study of Public Health in Medieval Cities,” in Understanding Medieval Primary Sources, ed. Rosenthal, pp. 176-95. 

Luis García Ballester et al., ed., Practical Medicine from Salerno to the Black Death (Cambridge, 1994).

Clare Pilsworth, “Beyond the Medical Text: Health and Illness in Early Medieval Italian Sources,” Social History of Medicine 24.1 (April 2011), 26-40.

The Prose Salernitan Questions: Edited from a Bodleian Manuscript (Auct. F. 3.10): An Anonymous Collection dealing with Science and Medicine written by an Englishman c1200, with an Appendix of Ten Related Collections, ed. Brian Lawn, Auctores Britannici Medii Aevi 5 (London, 1979).

Faye Getz, Medicine in the English Middle Ages (Princeton NJ, 1998).

Tony Hunt, Popular Medicine in Thirteenth-Century England: Introduction and Texts, (Cambridge, 1990).

Edward J. Kealey, Medieval Medicus: A Social Hstory of Anglo-Norman Medicine (Baltimore, 1981).

Cornelius O’BoyleThe Art of Medicine: Medical Teaching at the University of Paris, 1250-1400Education and Society in the Middle Ages and Renaissance 9 (Leiden, 1998).

Encyclopedia of the Black Death, ed. Joseph P. Byrne (Santa Barbara CA, 2012). 

Pandemic Disease in the Medieval World: Rethinking the Black Death, ed. Monica H. Green, special issue of The Medieval Globe 1 (2015). 

Wounds and Wound Repair in Medieval Culture, Explorations in Medieval Culture 1, ed. Larissa Tracy and Kelly DeVries (Leiden, 2015).


Peregrine Horden, Hospitals and Healing from Antiquity to the Later Middle Ages, Variorum Collected Studies Series (Aldershot, 2008).

Barbara S. Bowers, The Medieval Hospital and Medical Practice, AVISTA Studies in the History of Medieval Technology, Science and Art 3 (Aldershot, 2007).


Christian Schulze, “Alphabetischer Gesamtüberblick über die antiken christlichen Ärzte,” in SchulzeMedizin und Christentum in Spätantike und frühem Mittelalter: christliche Ärzte und ihr Wirken (Tübingen, 2005), pp. 235-40. 

C. H. Talbot and E. H. HammondThe Medical Practitioners in Medieval England: A Biographical Register (London, 1965). 

Robert S. Gottfried, Doctors and Medicine in Medieval England, 1340-1530 (Princeton NJ, 1986).

Ernest WickersheimerDictionnaire biographique des médecins en France au moyen âge (Geneva, 1979) ; Danielle JacquartSupplément (Geneva, 1979). 


(for Canon Law see Medieval Ecclesiastical History and Sources):

Roman Law:

See the following fascicles in the series Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental: 6. P. Godding, La jurisprudence (1973) ; 3. L. Genicot, Les actes publics (1972) ; 22. L. Genicot, La loi (1977) . See also G. Giordangengo in Berlioz, Identifier sources, pp. 121-76, and the section “Recht und Verfassung im Mittelalter” in Schuler, Grundbibliographie.

Project Volterra, Resources for Roman Law

Ernest Metzger, Roman Law Resources

Robert Feenstra, Droit romain au Moyen Age (1100-1500), in J. Gilissen, Introduction bibliographique á l’histoire du droit et á l’ethnologie juridique, B/10 (Brussels, 1979). 

Thomas Izbicki, “Roman Law,” Oxford Bibliographies

Scott L Taylor, “Law in the Middle Ages”; Hiriam Kümper, “Legal Texts”; and Edward D. English, “Notarial Literature,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 771-88, 1878-81, and 1950-56.

Scott L. Taylor, “Law in Literature and Society,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 836-63.

Kenneth Pennington, “Medieval Law,” in Medieval Studies ed. Powell, pp. 333-52.

Kenneth Pennington, “Roman and Secular Law,” in Medieval Latin, ed. Mantello and Rigg, pp. 254-67.

John A. Alford and Dennis P. Seniff, Literature and Law in the Middle Ages: A Bibliography of Scholarship (New York, 1984).

Joseph Balon, Grand Dictionnaire de Droit du Moyen Age (Namur, 1972- ). 

Manuscripta juridica (G. R. Dolazalek)

Handbuch der Quellen und Literatur der neueren europäischen Privatrechtgeschichte, ed. H. Coing (Munich, 1973- ), v.1: Mittelalter 1100-1500.

Charles M. Radding and Antonio Ciaralli, The Corpus Iuris Civilis in the Middle Ages: Manuscripts and Transmission from the Sixth Century to the Juristic Revival (Leiden, 2007). 

Research Guide for Medieval Law

International Bibliography of Medieval and Early Modern Wills and Probate Inventories

Vocabulary of Roman Law:

Vocabularium iurisprudentiae romanae, ed. Marianne Meinhart, 5 vols. (Berlin, 1903-1987). 

Vocabularium Codicis Iustiniani, 2 vols., ed. Robert Mayr (Prague, 1923). 

Novellae, Pars Latina: Legum Iustiniani imperatoris vocabularium, 11 vols., ed. G. G. Archi and A. M. Colombo (Milan, 1977). 

D. P. Blok, “Les formulas de droit romain dans les actes privés au haut moyen âge,” in Miscellanea Mediaevalia in Memoriam J. F. Niemeyer (Groningen, 1967). 

Early Medieval Law

Project Volterra, Resources for Early Medieval Law

Gerhard Köhler, Liber exquisiti xenii: Lexikon frühmittelalterlicher Rechtswörter

Biblioteca legum: Eine Handschriftendatenbank zum weltlichen Recht im Frankreich. Covers Carolingian secular law.


W. D. Hines, English Legal History. A Bibliography and Guide to the Literature (New York, 1990).

P. H. Winfield, The Chief Sources of English Legal History (Cambridge MA, 1925). 

John H. Baker, A Catalogue of English Legal Manuscripts in Cambridge University Library (Woodbridge, 1996).

The Letter of the Law: Legal Practice and Literary Production in Medieval England, ed. Emily Steiner and Candace Barrington (Ithaca NY, 2002).

Bracton Online


G. Gavat, Sources de l’histoire des institutions et du droit français. Manuel de bibliographie historique (Paris, 1899). 

F. Olivier-Martin, Histoire du droit français des origins à la Révolution, 2nd ed. (Paris, 1988). 


Monumenta Germaniae Historica: Leges.

Handwörterbuch zur deutschen Rechtsgeschichte, ed. A. Erler and E. Kaufmann (1971- ).

H. Conrad, Deutsche Rechtsgeschichte I: Frühzeit und Mittelalter. Ein Lehrbuth (Karlsruhe, 1962). 

H. Mitteis, Deutsche Rechtsgeschichte: Ein Studienbuch, 7th ed. (Munich, 1961). 


Catalogo della raccolta di statuti, consuetudini, leggi, decreti, ordini et privilegi dei comuni, delle associazioni e degli enti locali italiani dal medioevo alla fine del secolo XVIII, 6 vols., ed. C. Chelazzi (Rome, 1942-63). 

Material Culture and Daily Life:

Valerie L. Garver, “Everyday Life in Medieval Studies,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 525-40.

Mark Cruse, “Material Culture,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 836-50.

Gerhard Jaritz, “Daily Life,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 301-13.

Institut für Realienkunde des Mittelalters und der frühen Neuzeit. Includes REAL: An Image Database for the History of Everyday Life and Material Culture of the Middle Ages. Go to the Digitales Bildarchiv and select a main search criterion (Standorte; Künstler; Bildthema; Historische Orte; Orte; Handlungen; Personennamen; Standesbezeichnungen; Gestik; Kleidung; Materielle Objekte) to get an alphabetical list of search terms.

Fifteenth-Century Life: Annotated Bibliography

Gale Owen-Crocker, “Dress,” Oxford Bibliographies

Medieval Costume: An Annotated Bibliography

See also the sections “Sachkultur/Kulturgeschichte” in Schuler, Grundbibliographie.


Andrew Hughes, Medieval Music: The Sixth Liberal Art, rev. ed., Toronto Medieval Bibliographies (Toronto, 1980). 

Margot Fassler, Music in the Medieval West: Western Music in Context: Bibliographies.

The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Music, ed. Mark Everist (Cambridge, 2011). 

The New Oxford History of Music, Vol. 2: The Early Middle Ages to 1300, ed. Richard L. Crocker and David Hiley (Oxford, 1990). 

Nancy Phillips, “Music,” in Medieval Latin, ed. Mantello and Rigg, pp. 296-307.

James Sychowicz, “Music in Medieval Studies,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 931-39.

Karl Kügel, “Conceptualizing and Experiencing Music in the Middle Ages (ca. 500-1500),”  in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 1184-1204.

Music, by James W. Marchand (WEMSK 3).

Jan Herlinger, “Medieval Music Theory,” Oxford Bibliographies.

Vincent Corrigan, “Medieval Songs,” Oxford Bibliographies.

Timothy J. McGee, “Musical Instruments,” Oxford Bibliographies.

T. Kohlhase and G. M. Paucker, Bibliographie gregorianischer Choral (Regensburg, 1990).

RISM: Répertoire International des Sources Musicales

RILM: Répertoire International de Littérature Musicale

Lexikon musicum Latinum medii aevi. Dictionary of Medieval Latin Musical Terminology to the End of the 15th Century

Medieval Music Database

Digital Image Archive of Medieval Music

David HIley, Chant Bibliography

Gregorian Chant Bibliography

Database of Melodies and Texts of Gregorian Chant

CANTUS: A Database for Latin Ecclesiastical Chant

Comparatio des chants liturgiques médiévaux

Musica Mediaevalia. Ressources électroniques pour l’étude des sources manuscrits de la musique médiévale

Indici della trattatistica musicale italiana: A Systematic Catalogue of Theorists, Treatises, Composers and Musical Works cited from 1300 to 1799, by Piero Gargiulo.

Census-Catalogue of Manuscript Sources of Polyphonic Music,1400-1550, 5 vols., ed. Herbert Kellman (vol. 1 with Charles Hamm) (Stuttgart, 1979-88)

See also Karp in Powell, Medieval Studies, pp. 401-32.


International Philosophical Bibliography

Encyclopedia of Medieval Philosophy: Philosophy between 500 and 1500, ed. Henrik Lagerlund (Dordrecht, 2011). 

Stephen Penn, “Philosophy in Medieval Studies,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 1090-1111.

Rolf Schoenberger and Brigitte Kible, Repertorium edierter Texte des Mittelalters aus dem Bereich der Philosophie und angrenzender Gebiete (Berlin, 1994).

A Companion to Philosophy in the Middle Ages, ed. Jorge J. E. Gracia and Timothy B. Noone (Oxford, 2003).  Includes essays on major periods, the School of Chartres, Religious Orders, Scholasticism, and the Condemnations of 1270 and 1277, and entries on medieval philosophers from Adam of Wodeham to William of Ware.

The Cambridge History of Later Greek and Early Medieval Philosophy; ed. A. H. Armstrong (London, 1970).

The Cambridge History of Later Medieval Philosophy: From the Rediscovery of Aristotle to the Disintegration of Scholasticism, 1100-1600, ed. Norman Kretzmann et al. (New York, 1982).

The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Logic, ed. Catarina Dutilh Novaes and Stephen Read (Cambridge, 2016).

The Cambridge History of Medieval Political Thought c. 350-c. 1450, ed. J. H. Burns (Cambridge, 1988). 

Bulletin de philosophie médiévale (Louvain, 1959- ).

Bulletin thomiste (Soisy-sur-Seine, 1924-65). Superseded by Rassegna di letteratura tomistica (Naples, 1966- ). 

Electronic Resources for Medieval Philosophy Studies

Philosophy in the Middle Ages, by James W. Marchand (WEMSK 45).

See also Synan in Powell, Medieval Studies, pp. 353-76.

Pilgrimage and Travel:

Medieval Travel Writing

James Muldoon, “Travel and Travelers,” Oxford Bibliographies.

Maria E. Dorninger, “Travelogues,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 2102-18.

Trade, Travel, and Exploration in the Middle Ages: An Encyclopedia, ed. J. B. Friedman and K. M. Figg (New York, 2001). 

Encyclopedia of Medieval Pilgrimage, ed. Larissa J. Taylor et al. (Leiden, 2009).  Included in Brill’s Medieval Reference Library Online

Susanna Fischer, “Zur Überlieferung lateinischer Pilgertexte: Strukturierung, Auswahl und Sammlung der Informationen über das Heilige Land,” Mittellateinisches Jahrbuch 53 (2018), 78-104.

Itineraria et alia geographica: Itineraria Hierosolymitana. Itineraria Romana. Geographica, ed. P. Guyer et al. CCSL 175 (Turnhout, 1965). 

John Wilkinson, Jerusalem Pilgrims before the Crusades (Oxford, 2002).  Major texts in translation with supporting documents notes, and gazetteer. 

Race and Racism:

Jonathan Hsy and Julie Olemanski, “Race and Medieval History: A Partial Bibliography,” postmedieval: a journal of medieval cultural studies 8 (2017), 500-53.

Geraldine Heng, The Invention of Race in the European Middle Ages (Cambridge, 2018).

Geraldine Heng, “Teaching Essay: Race in the European Middle Ages,” H-Black-Europe. Includes a list of Recommended Readings.

The Origins of Racism in the West, ed. Miriam Eliav-Feldon, Benjamin Isaac, and Joseph Ziegler (Cambridge, 2008).

Lynn T. Ramey, Black Legacies: Race and the European Middle Ages (Gainesville FL, 2014).

Carol L. Robinson, “Race, Racism and the Middle Ages” (TEAMS)

Resources on Medieval Difference and Diversity

Black Central Europe

Medievalists of Color

Science and Technology:

History of Science, Technology and Medicine (EBSCO database). Incorporates the Isis Current Bibliography of the History of Science, theCurrent Bibliography in the History of Technology, the Bibliografia Italiana di Storia della Scienza and the Wellcome Library for the History and Understanding of Medicine.

ISIS Cumulative Bibliography 1913-1975. See esp. Volume 4: Civilizations and Periods: Prehistory to Middle Ages; Volume 5: Civilizations and Periods: 15th to 19th Centuries.

Technology and Culture,  Includes annually a “Current Bibliography in the History of Technology.” For electronic access to recent issues via JSTOR, select a volume, then select the “Supplement (Current Bibliography)” issue.

ISIS: A Journal of the History of Science Society

Claudia KrenMedieval Science and Technology: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography (New York, 1985). 

Kelly DeVries, ed., A Cumulative Bibliography of Medieval Military History and Technology (Leiden, 2002).  Comprehensive, but not annotated. Begins with General and Methodological bibliographies.

Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia, ed. Thomas F. Glick, Steven J. Livesey, and Faith Wallis (New York, 2005). 

Science et technique au Moyen Âge (XIIe–XVe siècle), ed. Joël Chandelier, Catherine Verna, and Nicolas Weill-Parot, Temps & Espaces (Saint-Denis, 2017). Table of Contents.

Lynn ThorndikeA History of Magic and Experimental Science, 8 vols. (New York, 1935-58). 

Edward Grant, “Medieval Science and Natural Philosophy,” in Powell, Medieval Studies, pp. 353-75.

Carrie Griffin, “Scientific Texts,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 2069-77.

Edward GrantPhysical Sciences in the Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1977). 

Science in Western and Eastern Civilisation in Carolingian Times, ed. P. Butzer and D. Lohrmann (Basel, 1993). 

Charlemagne and His Heritage: 1200 Years of Civilisation and Science in Europe, 2 vols., ed. P. Butzer, M. Kerner and W. Oberschelp (Turnhout, 1997). 

Lynn Thorndike and Pearl KibreCatalogue of Incipits of Medieval Scientific Writings in Latin, rev. ed. (Cambridge, MA 1963).  Searchable via the online Voigts-Kurz Search Program.

Linda Ehrsam Voigts and Patricia Deery KurtzScientific and Medical Writings in Old and Middle English: An Electronic Reference (Ann Arbor, 2000). 

Avista: Association Villard de Honnecourt for Interdisciplinary Study of Medieval Technology, Science and Art

Medieval Science, by James W. Marchand (WEMSK 10).

The Medieval Science Page

The Medieval Technology Pages

Medieval Science and Scientific Instruments: References

Epact: Scientific Instruments of Medieval and Renaissance Europe

For catalogues of medieval scientific manuscripts, see the separate bibliography on Medieval and Modern Manuscript Catalogues.

See sections E and F in Medieval Latin, ed. Mantello and Rigg for essays and bibliography on specific sciences and crafts, and the separate bibliography on Medieval Encyclopedias, Bestiaries, Lapidaries, and Herbals.  See also the chapters on “Astrology, Alchemy, and other Occult Sciences” and “Astronomy”; in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 102-19 and 120-33.

Social History:

Michael M. Sheehan and J. Murray, Domestic Society in Medieval Europe: A Select Bibliography, corrected reprint (Toronto, 1995).

Harry Kitsikopoulos, “Social and Economic Theory in Medieval Studies”; “Social History in Medieval Studies,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 1270-1305.

Robert Fossier, L’histoire économique et sociale du moyen âge occidental. Questions, sources, documents commentés, L’Atelier du médiéviste 6 (Turnhout, 1999).

Karl Bosl, Die Gesellschaft in der Geschichte des Mittelalters, 4th ed. (Göttingen, 1987).

Michael Borgolte, ed., Sozialgeschichte des Mittelalters. Eine Forschungsbilanz nach der deutscher Einheit, Historische Zeitschrift, Beiheft n.f. 22 (1996).

Sources of Social History: The Private Acts of the Late Middle Ages, ed. Paoli Brezzi and Egmont Lee (Toronto, 1984).

Marco Mostert, “A Bibliography of Works on Medieval Communication,” in New Approaches to Medieval Communication (Turnhout, 1999), pp. 193-318.

Birgit van den Hoven, Work in Ancient and Medieval Thought: Ancient Philosophers, Medieval Monks and Theologians and Their Concept of Work, Occupations and Technology (Leiden, 1996). 

Ville Vuolanto, “Children in the Ancient World and the Early Middle Ages: A Bibliography”

J. E. Boswell, The Kindness of Strangers. The Abandonment of Children in Western Europe from Late Antiquity to the Renaissance (New York, 1988).

See also the section “Sozial-und Bevölkerungsgeschichte” in Schuler, Grundbibliographie.


Paul Grendler, “Universities,” Oxford Bibliographies.

Graham Dunphy, “The Medieval University,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 1705-34.

Edwin Stark and Erich Hassinger, Bibliographie zur Universitätsgeschichte. Verzeichnis der im Gebiet der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1945-1971 veröffentlichten Literatur, Freiburger Beiträge zur Wissenschafts- und Universitätsgeschichte 1 (Freiburg, 1974).

Olga Weijers, Terminologie des universités au XIIIe siècle (Rome, 1987).

Les Universités à la fin du Moyen Âge: Actes du Congrès International de Louvain, 26-30 Mai 1975, ed. Jozef Ijsewijn and Jacques Paquet, Mediaevalia Lovanensia I/VI (Leuven, 1978). 

Manuels, programmes de cours et techniques d’enseignement dans l’universités médiévales, ed. Jacqueline Hamesse (Louvain-la-Neuve, 1994).

A History of the University in Europe, vol. 1: Universities in the Middle Ages, ed. H. de Ridder-Symoens (Cambridge, 1992).

H. Rashdall, The Universities in Medieval Europe, 3 vols., ed. F. M. Powicke and A. B. Emden (Oxford, 1936).

Lynn Thorndike, University Records and Life in the Middle Ages (New York, 1975). 

Olaf Pedersen, The First Universities: studium generale and the Origins of University Education in Europe (Cambridge, 1997).

Gordon Leff, Paris and Oxford Universities in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries (New York, 1968).

William Courtenay, Schools and Scholars in Fourteenth-Century England (Princeton NJ, 1987).

William Courtenay, Parisian Scholars in the Early Fourteenth-Century: A Social Portrait (Cambridge, 2004).

Repertorium Academicum Germanicum. The Graduated Scholars of the Holy Roman Empire between 1250 and 1550

Matrikel-, Professoren- und Graduiertenkataloge des Mittelalters und der Frühen Neuzeit (Germania Sacra)

Prosopografia dell’Università degli studi di Perugia

Maestri e scolari a Siena e Perugia (1250-1500)

Women, Gender, Sexuality:

Kim M. Phillips, “Sex and Sexuality,” Oxford Bibliographies.

Hiram Kümper, “Gender Studies,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 594-602; Barbara Stevenson, “Feminism,” pp. 540-50; Daniel F. Pigg, “Masculinity Studies,” pp. 829-36; Forrest C. Helvie, “Queer Studies,” 1142-55.

Albrecht Classen, “Love, Sex, and Marriage,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 901-36.

Katherine L. French, “Medieval Women’s History: Sources and Issues,” in Understanding Medieval Primary Sources, ed. Rosenthal, pp. 196-209.

Oxford Handbook of Women and Gender in Medieval Europe, ed. Judith M. Bennett and Ruth Mazo Karras (Oxford, 2013). 

Women and Gender in Medieval Europe: An Encyclopedia, ed. Margaret Schaus (New York, 2006).

Women in the Middle Ages: An Encyclopedia, 2 vols, ed. Katharina M. Wilson and Nadia Margolis (Westport CT, 2004).

The Annotated Index of Medieval Women, ed. Anne Echols and Marty Williams (New York, 1992).

Werner Affeldt, Frauen im Frühmittelater: Eine ausgewählte, kommentierte Bibliographie (1990).

Werner Affeldt and Ursula Vorwerk, Frauen in Spätantike und Frühmittelalter: Lebensbedingungen, Lebensnormen, Lebensformen (Sigmaringen, 1990).

Lucy Frey et al., Women in Western European History: A Select Chronological, Geographical, and Topical Bibliography from Antiquity to the French Revolution, 2 vols. (Westport CT, 1982). Has subject, name, and author indices.

Andrew Kadel, Matrology. A Bibliography of Writings by Christian Women from the First to the Fifteenth Centuries (New York, 1994). 

Peter Dronke, Women Writers of the Middle Ages: A Critical Study of Texts from Perpetua (203) to Marguerite Porete (1310) (Cambridge, 1984).

The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Women’s Writing, ed. Carolyn Dinshaw and David Wallace (Cambridge, 2003). 

June Hannam et al., British Women’s History: A Bibliographical Guide (Manchester, 1996).

Carolly L. Erickson and Kathleen Casey, “Women in the Middle Ages: A Working Bibliography,” Mediaeval Studies 37 (1975), 340-359.

Handbook of Medieval Sexuality, ed. Vern L. Bullough and James Brundage (New York, 2000).

J. E. Salisbury, Medieval Sexuality: A Research Guide (New York, 1990).

Danielle Jacquart and Claude Thomasset, Sexuality and Medicine in the Middle Ages, trans. Matthew Adamson (Paris, 1985).

Ariadne. Austrian National Library site for research on women and gender. Includes a bibliography and searchable databank.

Feminae: Medieval Women and Gender Index (Medieval Feminist Index). Searchable database; covers 450 journals and essay collections, excludes monographs.

Monastic Matrix: A Scholarly Resource for the Study of Women’s Religious Communities from 400 to 1600 CE. Includes a superb Bibliographia, searchable and browsable.

A Bibliography on Women and the Family in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, by Antti Arjava.

Monica Green, Bibliography on Medieval Women, Gender, and Medicine, 1980-2009  

Bibliography on Gender in Byzantium (Dumbarton Oaks).

Bibliography of Works by and about Women Writers of the Middle Ages, by Paul Halsall.

VII. Ancillary Disciplines

Bernard Merdrignac and André Chédeville, Les Sciences annexes en histoire du Moyen âge (Rennes, 1998). Covers chronology, archaeology, numismatics, paleography, diplomatics, sigillography, heraldry, genealogy, and onomastics. The bibliography is heavily oriented towards works in French.

Historische Hilfswissenschaften


Theo Kölzer, “Diplomatics,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 405-24.

Leonard Boyle, “Diplomatics,” in Medieval Studies, ed. Powell, pp. 82-113.

Richard Sharpe, “Charters, Deeds, and Diplomatics,” in Medieval Latin, ed. Mantello and Rigg, pp. 230-41.

Olivier Guyotjeannin, J. Pycke, and B.-M. Tock, Diplomatique médiévale, L’Atelier du médiéviste 2 (Turnhout, 1994).

Olivier Guyotjeannin, Bibliographie de diplomatique médiévale

Thomas Frenz, Bibliographie zur Diplomatik verwandten Fachgebieten der Historischen Hilfswissenschaften

María Milagros Cárcel-Ortí, Vocabulaire internationale de la diplomatique (Valencia, 1997).

Adam J. Kosto and Anders Winroth, ed., Charters, Cartularies and Archives: The Preservation and Transmission of Documents in the Medieval West (Toronto, 2002).

Répertoire des cartulaires médiévaux et modernes

Chartes originales antérieures à 1121 conservées en France

Chartes originales (1121-1220) conservées en France

RegeCarte: Regestes de cartulaires

Actes des congrès de la Commission internationale de diplomatique (École nationale des chartes). Includes volumes on many genres of documentary sources, some of which are online, for example:

Typologie der Königsurkunden, ed. Jan Bistřický (Olmütz, 1998)

On diplomatics see also Boyle in Medieval Studies, ed. Powell, pp. 82-113.


Walter Koch, “Epigraphy,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 489-506.

Robert Favreau, Épigraphie médiévale, L’atelier du médiéviste 5 (Turnhout, 1997).

Robert Favreau, Les inscriptions médiévales, Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental 35 (Turnhout, 1979). 

François Bérard et al., Guide de l’épigraphiste. Bibliographie choisie des épigraphies antiques et médiévales, 3rd ed., Guides et inventaires bibliographiques de la Bibliothèque del’École normale supérieure, 6 (Paris, 2000).

Literaturbericht zur mittelalterlichen und neuzeitlichen Epigraphik (1976-1984); (1985-1991); (1992-1997), ed. Walter Koch, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Hilfsmittel 11, 14, 19 (Munich, 1987, 1994, 2000). ; Discursive critical review of the literature by various hands, with author index and very detailed subject index. Conceives “Epigraphik” broadly; the subject index includes articulated entries for imagery (“Darstellungen”), iconography, dating, etc.

L’année epigraphique (1888- ). Supplement to Revue archéologique.

Current Epigraphy

Electronic Archive of Greek and Latin Epigraphy

Epigraphica europa. Includes a bibliographical database, with guest log-in.

Epigraphische Datenbank Heidelberg

Links to Epigraphy websites

Manuscripts and Palaeography:

[For more detailed references on manuscript studies, see the separate bibliographies on Manuscript Research; Medieval and Modern Manuscript Catalogues]

Scott Gwara, “Medieval Manuscripts,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 999-1019.

Leonard Boyle, Medieval Latin Palaeography: A Bibliographical Introduction (Toronto, 1986). The section on “Research Setting” lists some standard reference works.

Electronic Palaeography: A New Bibliographical Website, by Fabio Troncarelli. In-progress updating of Boyle’s Medieval Latin Palaeography.

Bibliographie de paléographie, by Marc Smith.

Vocabulaire codicologique: Répertoire méthodique des termes français relatifs aux manuscrits avec leurs équivalents en anglais, italien, espagnol, by Denis Muzerelle.

Laura Nichols Braswell, Western Manuscripts from Classical Antiquity to the Renaissance: A Handbook (New York, 1981). See especially Chapter I, “Bibliographical Materials.”


Scriptorium (“Bulletin Codicologique”) (1946- ).   Use the on-line version to search for bibliography on a particular manuscript.

Internet resources:

Historische Hilfswissenschaften: Handschriftenkunde/Kodikologie. Probably the best and most comprehensive site.

Manuscripta Mediaevalia, Universität Marburg.


Rory Naismith, “Numismatics”; “Numismatic Literature,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 1007-23; 1956-63.

Rory Naismith, “Numismatics,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, pp. 1261-80.

M. Bompaire and F. Dumas, Numismatique médiévale, L’Atelier du médiéviste 7 (Turnhout, 2000).

Philip Grierson, Les monnaies, Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental 21 (Turnhout, 1977). 

Philip Grierson, “Numismatics,” in Powell, Medieval Studies, pp. 114-61.

Alan M. Stahl, “Coins,” Oxford Bibliographies: Medieval Studies.

Medieval European Coinage, gen. ed. Elina Screen (Cambridge, 2007- ).

Medieval Numismatic References, by Robert Wilson Hope (.pdf file). Includes “A Survey of Numismatic Research 2002-7” (.pdf file).

Peter Spufford, Money and its Uses in Medieval Europe (Cambridge, 1988). 

Numismatische Bilddatenbank Eichstätt

Checklist of Coin Hoards from the British Isles, c. 450-1180

For other ancillary disciplines (sigillography, heraldry, metrology, etc.) consult the bibliographical manuals on medieval history listed in section I above and the relevant essays in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen,  including:  Hieko Hartmann, “Heraldry,” pp. 619-24; Ulrich Müller, “Metrology,” pp. 836-50.

Charles D. Wright:
Last updated 5/19