Medieval Christianity and Ecclesiastical Sources

I. Bibliographies and Reference Works

II. Church Histories

III. Ecclesiastical Hierarchy and Religious Houses

IV. Monasticism and Religious Orders

V. Religious Life of the Laity

VI. Topical Bibliographies

Note: The division between “historical” (State) and “ecclesiastical” (Church) sources is to some degree arbitrary but is a useful bibliographical expedient. Though many resources cover both areas, those listed in the separate bibliography on Medieval History and Historical Sources are generally not repeated here. Many resources in the separate bibliographies on Medieval Studies: General Bibliographies and Reference Works and Medieval Latin Literature are also relevant but are generally not repeated here.

I. Bibliographies and Reference Works


James E. Bradley and Richard A. Muller, Church History: An Introduction to Research, Reference Works, and Methods, 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids MI, 2016).  

Thomas A. Robinson and Brent ShawThe Early Church: An Annotated Bibliography of Literature in English (Metuchen NJ, 1993).

A General Bibliography for Research in the History of Medieval Christianity, by Thomas Head.

G. E. Gorman and Lynn Gorman,Theological and Religious Reference Materials, 2 vols., Bibliographies and Indexes in Religious Studies 1-2 (Westport CN, 1985-86) : vol. 1: General Resources and Biblical Studies; vol. 2: Systematic Theology and Church History,

Handbook of Church History, ed. H. Jedin and John Dolan (New York, 1965- ), vols. II-IV. See the General Bibliography to volumes III-IV and the bibliographies to individual chapters.

Katherine J. Gill, “Medieval Christianity: The State of the Field,” Religion Compass 1 (2004).CH 013, 1–17.

See also the sections “Quellensammlungen zur Kirchengeschichte” and “Kirchen- und Religionsgeschichte” in Schuler, Grundbibliographie.

Serial Bibliographies and Databases

Index Religiosus (Brepols database). Incorporates the annual bibliographies of Revue d’histoire ecclésiastique and of the Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses.

Ephemerides Theologicae Lovaniensis (1924- ). Includes an annual Elenchus Bibliographicus. Now incorporated in the Index Religiosus.

Revue d’histoire ecclésiastique (Louvain, 1900- ). Searchable for 1973-2014 on the journal’s Brepols website; as of 2014 incorporated into the database Index Religiosus. Includes an extensive, topically organized bibliography of recent works.and print publication of the bibliography ceased. 1900-2000 volumes are available full-text in the ProQuest PAO Periodicals Archive. Unfortunately, ProQuest searches do not take you to the specific page of a hit, or even identify the specific pages of each hit; they only highlight the hit in yellow in the full text and so force you to browse the article to find it (and their pdfs are not searchable!).

Bulletin Signalétique. 527, Histoire et sciences de religions (Paris, 1968-1994). See the sections Christianisme: Christianisme antique (Ier-VIe sicle), Église médiévale; Exégèse et critique biblique. Annual cumulative indices include an Index du christianisme and an Index biblique.  Superseded by FRANCIS EBSChost database.

Bulletin d’ancienne littérature chrétienne latine (1921-78) , and Bulletin d’histoire bénédictine (1907-2011). Bibliographical supplements to the journal Revue Bénédictine. 

“Littérature et histoire du Christianisme ancien,” Laval théologique et philosophique 45 (1989) to present.

Bulletin de théologie ancienne et médiévale (Louvain, 1929-96), Each item is accompanied by a brief abstract/review in French, English, or German. Each volume concludes with indices of manuscripts, authors, etc. Discontinued in 1997 when the journal Recherches de théologie ancienne et médiévale (Louvain, 1929-1995), , became Recherches de théologie et philosophie médiévales (1997- ),  and print publication of the bibliography ceased. 1900-2000 volumes are available full-text in the ProQuest PAO Periodicals Archive. Unfortunately, ProQuest searches do not take you to the specific page of a hit, or even identify the specific pages of each hit; they only highlight the hit in yellow in the full text and so force you to browse the article to find it (and their pdfs are not searchable!).

Religious and Theological Abstracts

Revue d’histoire de l’église de France (1924- ).

Rivista di storia della Chiesa in Italia (1947- ).

The above resources are specific to ecclesiastical history. Bibliographies of broader scope that include ecclesiastical history are listed in the separate bibliographies on General Bibliographies, Reference Works, and Internet Resources, and Medieval History and Historical Sources. The most important are:

Brepolis Medieval Bibliographies. Combines two complementary serial bibliographies: International Medieval Bibliography [IMB] (Leeds, 1967- ) , covering periodical literature, and Bibliographie de civilisation médiévale (1958- ) , covering monographs and miscellanies as well as book reviews. The Help page has a section “How to search?”  Includes Simple and Advanced search modes. Under Advanced Search “Thematic Search – Specific” you can also select “more search possibilities” to open up search fields for “Manuscripts,” “Persons, Families, Texts” and “Places.”Topical bibliographies can be found by entering “bibliography” in “Thematic Search – Specific: All index terms ” and selecting the relevant disciplines in “Thematic Search – General”. (In some cases the pull-down menu invoked by entering a term in the “Thematic Search – Specific: All index terms” box will include a selection for “Bibliography”).

Iter: The Bibliography of Medieval and Renaissance Europe from 1400-1700. “Iter’s bibliography includes literature pertaining to the Middle Ages and Renaissance (400-1700). Citations for books, journal material (articles, reviews, review articles, bibliographies, catalogues, abstracts and discographies) are included, as are citations for essays in books (including entries in conference proceedings, festschriften, encyclopedias and exhibition catalogues).” The Iter databases also include Aestimatio, on the history of science, Baptisteria sacra, on baptismal fonts, Kristeller’s Iter Italicum, the International Directory of Scholars, as well as several databases on Renaissance topics.

On Iter and IMB see Daniel Newton and Jennalyn Tellman, “A Comparison of the Iter Bibliography and the International Medieval Bibliography: Tools for Researching the History of the European Middle Ages,” Reference & User Services Quarterly 49 (2010), 265-77.

Mirabile: Digital Archives for Medieval Latin Culture. Allows full text, simple and and advanced searches.  Hits are grouped by database (below).  Each record will usually supply an abstract and one or more fields linking to reviews and citations; subjects and indices; manuscripts; and external resources. The tutorial page gives a number of sample searches.

Regesta Imperii. Includes a Literaturdatenbank zum Mittelalter with more than one million titles focusing on medieval European history. Basic searches are by title-keyword, keyword, series, journal, personal name, and year. There are alphabetical title-keyword and peronal name indices, as well as an alphabetical thesaurus (e.g., if you were searching for literature on Charlemagne, select k > ka > Karl d. Gr.). A particularly valuable function is the “Thesaurus,” which enables you to define up to three search criteria, each of which has three options (geographical, temporal, and thematic) that expand into increasingly more narrow options. You can select “Mittelalter” in the chronological option (and further delimit to “Frühmittelalter,” “Hochmittelalter,” or “Spätmittelalter”), then select from a large number of thematic (subject) options. To locate bibliographies, for example, set one search criterion to “Thematische Zuordnung > Allgemeine und Hilfsmittel > Bibliographien”, and a second to “Geographische Zuordnung > Mittelalter” (this yields over 200 hits); if desired, set a third criterion to a specific subject, e.g. “Thematische Zuordnung > Personengeschichte > Regenten (Kaiser, Könige) > Könige von Deutschland; römisch-deutsche Kaiser > Karl d. Gr.”  Note: sometimes it is better not to delimit the subject area so narrowly.

Historische Bibliographie Online. Coverage since 1990. Includes indices of authors, persons and places, and institutions. The search engine allows delimiting by “Mittelalter” or by more narrow geographical or temporal ranges, as well as by broad subject areas (Sachgruppen), type of publication, and year.


Karl Hartmann, Atlas-Tafel-Werk zur Bibel- und Kirchengeschichte: Karten, Tabellen, Erläuterungen, 5 parts in 8 vols. (Stuttgart, 1979-83) : 1: Altes Testament und Geschichte des Judentums bis Jesus Christus; 2. Neues Testament und Geschichte der Kirche bis zu Karl dem Großen; 3/I-II. Geschichte der Kirche von Karl dem Großen bis zum Vorabend der Reformation.

Encyclopedias and Dictionaries

Encyclopedia of Christianity, ed. Erwin Fahlbusch et al., 5 vols. (Grand Rapids MI, 1998-2008).  Electronic version: Encyclopedia of Christianity Online (Brill).

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, ed. F. L. Cross and E. A. Livingstone, 3rd ed. (New York, 1997). Brief but authoritative entries with good select bibliographies.

Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, 3rd. ed. Walter Kasper et al., 11 vols. (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1993). 

Theologische Realenzyklopädie, ed. G. Krause and G. Müller (Berlin, 1977- ). Superb resource with a Gesamtindex (2006). Online as a De Gruyter database.

Encyclopedia of the Early Church, 2 vols., ed. Angelo Di Berardino (New York, 1992). Coverage through Bede (d. 735). Much more thorough than the Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, but limited chronologically.

Encyclopedia of Early Christianity, 2 vols., ed. Everett Ferguson, 2nd ed. (New York, 1997). Coverage up to AD 600.

Reallexikon für Antike und Christentum, ed. Theodor Klauser and Ernst Dassmann (Leipzig, 1941- ). Up to “Platzordnung” as of 2016; a few supplements have appeared for the A-volume. Easily the best resource for the early Christian period (up to c. 600). The English option in the on-line index of headwords (Stichwortliste) gives an alphabetical list of English equivalents that generates the corresponding German headwords.

Dictionnaire d’archéologie chrétienne et de liturgie, 15 vols., ed. Ferdinand Cabrol, Henri Leclercq, and Henri Marrou (Paris, 1907-53). The next best resource, although the earlier parts are inevitably dated.  The first four volumes are online.

Dictionnaire d’histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques (Paris, 1909- ). Excellent guide to persons and places in ecclesiastical history, but only up to “Liu Hanzo” as of 2016. The website has a free online index.  The full text is online as a Brepols database.

Dictionnaire de spiritualité ascétique et mystique, ed. M. Villier et al. (Paris, 1932- ). Broader in scope than its title might suggest; superb, extensive articles with detailed bibliographies.

Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, 15 vols., ed. A. Vacant, E. Mangenot, and E. Amann, (Paris, 1909-50), with general index ed. B. Loth and A. Michel (Paris, 1953-72). Use the 3 volumes of indices to locate articles relevant to a given topic.

Religion Past and Present/Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart: Handwörterbuch für Theologie und Religionswissenschaft, 4th ed., 5 vols. (Túbingen, 1998-2007). . The online version is updated.

The New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2nd ed. 15 vols. (New York, 2003) The 1913 edition, in many respects more thorough though inevitably dated, is available on-line.

Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz, ed., Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon, 14 vols. (Herzberg, 1970-1998). The on-line version is incomplete.

Eastern Christianity:

The Encyclopedia of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, 2 vols., ed. John Anthony McGuckin (Chichester, 2011). 

The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity, ed. Ken Parry et al. (Oxford, 1999).

Dictionnaire de l’orient chrétien, ed. J. Assfalg (Turnhout, 1991).

Dizionario enciclopedico dell’Oriente cristiano, ed. E. G. Farrugia (Rome, 2000).

Journal Databases and Full-Text Journals

Comprehensive Journal Databases:

ATLA Religion Index.  Coverage from 1949.  Database access via EBSCOhost. Includes many major ecclesiastical history periodicals, including Church History and Zeitschrift für Theologie und Kirche.

Zeitschrifteninhaltsdienst Theologie (Tübingen). Covers Journals, Festschriften, and Proceedings. Can be browsed by current month, and previous two months or by the most recent six days; or by title of journal or collection. Also includes an extremely valuable and flexible Datenbank Index theologicus (with an on-line English tutorial).that can be searched by subject, author, title, classification, or source, or by biblical book and verse.

Some Other Major Church History and Theological Full-Text Journals:

Harvard Theological Review (1908- ).

Journal of Ecclesiastical History (1950- ).

Journal of Theological Studies (1899- )

II. Church Histories


Peter Brown, The Rise of Western Christendom: Triumph and Diversity, A.D. 200-1000, 2nd ed. (Oxford, 2003).

The Oxford Handbook of Medieval Christianity, ed. John H. Arnold (Oxford, 2014). 

The Cambridge History of Christianity (Cambridge, 2001-): vol. 1: Origins to Constantine, ed. Margaret M. Mitchell and Francis M. Young (2006) ; vol. 2: Constantine to c.600, ed. Augustine Casiday and Frederick Norris (2007) ; vol. 3:  Early Medieval Christianities, ed. c.600-c.1100, ed. Thomas F. X. Noble and Julia M. H. Smith (2008) ; vol. 4: Christianity in Western Europe, c.1100-c.1500, ed. Miri Rubin and Walter Simons (2010) ; vol. 5: Eastern Christianity, ed. Michael Angold (2006). 

Histoire du christianisme des origines à nos jours, ed. J.-M. Mayeur et al.: vol. 2: Institutions de la chrétienté médiévale , ed. Gabriel le Bras; vol. 4: Evêques, moines et empereurs (642–1054), ed. Gilbert Dagron, Pierre Riché, and André Vauchez (Paris, 1993) ; vol. 5: Apogée de la papauté et expansion de la chrétienté (1054–1274), ed. André Vauchez (Paris, 1993) ; vol. 6: Un temps d’épreuves (1274–1449), ed. Michel Mollat du Jourdin and André Vauchez (Paris, 1990) .

The Routledge History of Medieval Christianity 1050-1500, ed. R. N. Swanson (New York, 2015). Contents: Part 1: Structures 1. Brett Edward Whalen, “The Papacy”; 2. R. N. Swanson, “Bishoprics and Parishes”; 3. R. N. Swanson, “Manning the Church: Priests and Bishops”; 4. James D. Mixson, “Religious Life and Religious Orders”. Part 2: Forming the Mindset 5. Ian Christopher Levy, “The Study of Theology in the Middle Ages”; 6. Peter D. Clarke, “Canon Law”; 7. Cary J. Nederman, “Social and Political Thought”; 8. Andrew Reeves, “Education and Religious Instruction.” Part 3: Catholicism in Practice 9. Nicolas Bell, “Liturgy”; 10. D. Bornstein, “Administering the Sacraments”; 11 Thomas M. Izbicki, “Sin and Pastoral Care,” 12. Simon Yarrow, “Pilgrimage”; 13. Robert W. Shaffern, “Death and the Afterlife in the Middle Ages”; 14. Chistopher Tyerman, “Violence and Holy War in Western Christendom”; 15. Alixe Bovey, ‘”From Material to Immaterial Things’: Gothic Art and Immaterial Culture”; 16 Alexandra Gajewski, “Building Christendom: Patrons, Architects and Centres of Innovation in Medieval Europe”; Part 4: Challenges 17. Jonathan Elukin, “Christianity and Judaism; Christians and Jews”; 18. Peter Biller, “Heresy and Dissent”; 19. Catherine Rider, “Magic and Superstition.” Part 5: Shaping a Catholic Society 20. R. H. Helmholz, “Jurisdiction and Discipline”; 21. A. T. Brown, “Economic Life”; 22. Kim M. Phillips, “Gender and Sexuality”; 23. Alexandra Barratt, “Literature.”

Early Medieval Christianities, 600–1100, ed. Thomas F. X. Noble and Julia M. H. Smith, The Cambridge History of Christianity 3 (Cambridge, 2008).

Gerd Tellenbach, The Church in Western Europe from the Tenth to the Early Twelfth Century, trans. Timothy Reuter (Cambridge, 1993).

Jean Daniélou and Henri Marrou, The Christian Centuries, vol. 1: The First Six Hundred Years, trans. V. Cronin (New York, 1964).

Peter Dinzelbacher, “Religious Studies (The Latin West)”, in Handbook of Medieval Studies: Terms – Methods – Trends, ed. Classen, pp. 1184-1201.

Eastern Churches:

Wilhelm Baum and Dietmar W. Winkler, The Church of the East: A Concise History, trans. Miranda G. Henry (London, 2000).

Samuel Hugh Mofett, Christianity in Asia, vol. 1: Beginnings to 1500 (New York, 1988).

Peter Kawerau, Ostkirchengeschichte, vol. 1: Das Christentum in Asien und Afrika bis zum Auftreten der Portugiesen im Indischen Ozean, Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium 451 Subsida 70 (Louvain, 1983).

Raymond Le Coz, Histoire de l’Eglise d’Orient: Chrétiens d’Irak, d’Iran et de Turquie (Paris, 1995).

Jean Dauvillier, Histoire et institutions des Eglises orientales au Moyen Age (London, 1983).

Prayer and Worship in Eastern Christianities, 5th to 11th Centuries, ed. Brouria Bitton-Ashkelony and Derek Krueger (New York, 2017).

By Region and/or Period:

See also the regional studies listed under sections IV. and V.  Here are listed broad histories of each region or period, which of course will also cover religious houses and orders. The period and regional histories listed in the separate bibliography on Medieval History and Historical Sources: V: Nations, Regions, and Cultures will also often be relevant.


Vrej N. NersessianA Bibliography of Articles on Armenian Studies in Western Journals, 1869-1995 (London, 1997).

R. W. Thomson, A Bibliography of Classical Armenian Literature to 1500 AD Turnhout, 1995).

Krzystof StopkaArmenia Christiana: Armenian Religious Identity and the Churches of Constantinople and Rome (4th-15th century) (Krakow, 2016).

Vrej N. Nersessian, “Armenian Christianity,” In Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity, ed. Ken Parry (Malden MA, 2007), pp. 23-46.

Vrej N. Nersessian,The Tondrakian Movement: Religious Movements in the Armenian Church from the Fourth to the Tenth Centuries (London, 1987).

Vrej N. NersessianThe Bible in the Armenian Tradition (London, 2001).

Vrej N. NersessianTreasures from the Ark: 1700 Years of Armenian Christian Art London, 2001).

F. C. Conybeare, The Armenian Church: Heritage and Identity, compiled with introduction by Vrej N. Nersessian (New York, 2001).

The Formation of a Millennial Tradition: 1700 Years of Armenian Christian Witness, ed.   Robert F. TaftOrientalia Christiana Analecta 271 (Rome, 2004).l

Medieval Armenian Culture, ed. T. J. Samuelian and M. E. Stone, University of Pennsylvania Armenian Texts and Studies 6 (Chico CA, 1984).

Languages and Cultures of Eastern Christianity: Armenian, ed. Tim Greenwood, The Worlds of Eastern Christianity, 300-1500 (Farnham, Surrey, 2017).


See also the general resources on Byzantine history listed in the separate bibiography on Medieval History and Historical Sources: Byzantium; and on Byzantine Theology see the separate bibliography on Theology and Dogma: Byzantine Theology.

J. M. Hussey, The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire, with updated bibliography by A. M. Louth (Oxford, 2010).

Hannah Hunt, “Byzantine Christianity,” in Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity, ed. Ken Parry (Malden MA, 2007), pp. 73-93.

Mary B. Cunningham, Faith in the Byzantine World (Oxford, 2002).

Deno John Geanakoplos, Byzantium: Church Society, and Civilization Seen through Contemporary Eyes (Chicago, 1984).

Hans-Georg Beck, Geschichte der orthodoxen Kirche im byzantinischen Reich (Göttingen, 1980).

Donald M. Nicol, Church and Society in the Last Century of Byzantium (Cambridge, 1979).

Herbert Hunger, Reich der Mitte: Der christliche Geist der byzantinischen Kultur (Graz, 1965).

Robert F. Taft, The Byzantine Rite: A Short History (Collegeville MN, 1992).

P. Galadza, “Byzantine Christian Worship,” in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion. 


Thomas F. X. Noble, “Carolingian Era,” Oxford Bibliographes. Includes a section on the Carolingian Church.

Thomas F. X. Noble, “Carolingian Religion,” Church History 84 (2015), 287-307.

Maybe De Jong, “Charlemagne’s Church,” in Charlemagne: Empire and Society, ed. Joanna Story (Manchester, 2005), pp. 103-35.

Owen M. Phelan, The Formation of Christian Europe: The Carolingians, Baptism, and the Imperium Christianum (New York, 2014).

Rosamond McKitterick, The Frankish Church and the Carolingian Reforms, 789-895 (1977).

Donald Bullough, Carolingian Renewal: Sources and Inheritance (Manchester, 1991).

Carolingian Essays: Andrew W. Mellon Lectures in Early Christian Studies, ed. Uta-Renate Blumenthal (Washington D.C., 1983).

Karl der Grosse: Lebenswerk und Nachleben, vol. 2: Das geistliche Leben, ed. Bernhard Bischoff (Düsseldorf, 1965).


Kathleen Hughes, “The Celtic Church: Is This a Valid Concept? O’Donnell Lectures in Celtic Studies, University of Oxford 1975,” Cambridge Medieval Celtic Studies 1 (1985), 1-20.

Wendy Davies, “The Myth of the Celtic Church,” in The Early Church in Wales and the West: Recent work in Early Christian Archaeology, History and Place-Names, ed. Nancy Edwards and Alan Lane (Oxford, 1992) pp. 12-21.

Louis Gougaud, Christianity in Celtic Lands: A History of the Churches of the Celts, Their Origin, Their Development, Influence, and Mutual Relations (London, 1932).

Nora Chadwick, The Age of the Saints in the Early Celtic Church (Oxford, 1961).

Caitlin CorningThe Celtic and Roman Traditions: Conflict and Consensus in the Early Medieval Church (New York, 2006).

F. E. Warren, The Liturgy and Ritual of the Celtic Church, 2nd ed. with new Introduction and Bibliography by Jane Stevenson, Studies in Celtic History 9 (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1987).

Michael W. Herren and Shirley Ann Brown, Christ in Celtic Christianity: Britain and Ireland from the Fifth to the Tenth Century (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002).


James F. Kenney, The Sources for the Early History of Ireland: Ecclesiastical. An Introduction and Guide (New York, 1929; repr. with Addenda by Ludwig Bieler, 1966).

Colmán Etchingham, Church Organisation in Ireland, A.D. 650-1000 (Maynooth, 1999).

Kathleen Hughes, The Church in Early Irish Society (London, 1966).

Tomás Ó CarragáinChurches in Early Medieval Ireland: Architecture, Ritual and Memory (New Haven, 2010).

Aubrey Gwynn, The Church in Ireland in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries, ed. Gerard O’Brien (Dublin, 1992).

Marie-Thérèse Flanagan, The Transformation of the Irish Church in the Twelfth Century, Studies in Celtic History 29 (Woodbridge, 2010).





Central, Eastern, and Southeastern European:

J. M. Wallace-Hadrill, The Frankish Church, Oxford History of the Christian Church (Oxford, 1983).

Yitzhak Hen, Culture and Religion in Merovingian Gaul, AD 481–751 (Leiden, 1995)


Languages and Cultures of Eastern Christianity: Georgian, ed. Stephen H. Rapp, Jr. and Paul Crego, The Worlds of Eastern Christianity, 300-1500 (Farnham, Surrey, ).


Languages and Cultures of Eastern Christianity: Greek, ed. Scott Fitzgerald Johnson The Worlds of Eastern Christianity, 300-1500 (Farnham, Surrey, ).

Low Countries:
North African:

The Routledge Companion to Christianity in Africa, ed. Elias Kifon Bongmba (New York, 2015). 

David E. Wilhite, Ancient African Christianity: An Introduction to a Unique Context and Tradition (London, 2017).

Christianity in Roman Africa: The Development of Its Practices and Beliefs, ed. J. Patout Burns, Jr., Robin M. Jensen et al. (Grand Rapids MI, 2014).

André Mandouze, Prosopographie chrétienne du Bas-Empire, I: Prosopographie de l’Afrique chrétienne (Paris, 1979).

Dominique Arnold, Histoire du christianisme en Afrique: Les sept premiers siècles (Paris, 2001).

Paul Monceaux, Histoire littéraire de l’Afrique chrétienne depuis les origins jusqu’a l’invasion arabe, 7 vols. (Paris, 1901-23).

W. H. C. Frend, The Donatist Church: A Movement of Protest in Roman North Africa (Oxford, 1952).

Center for Early African Christianity


Claremont Coptic Encyclopedia

Tito Orlandi, Coptic Bibliography.  Requires subscription.

Alberto Camplani, Bibliography on Coptic History and Historiography 2008-2016

Tenth International Congress of Coptic Studies, Rome, 17-22 September 2012. Includes a series of topical bibliographies, including the following item.

Heike Behlmer, Recent Research in Coptic Literature (2008-2012). Provisional Bibliography.

Winifred Kammerer, A Coptic Bibliography (Ann Arbor MI, 1950).

The Historical Dictionary of the Coptic Church, ed. Gawdat Gabra (Lanham MD, 2008).

Sawirus B. al-Muqaffa (attrib.), History of the Patriarchs of Alexandria: The Copts of Egypt before and after the Islamic Conquests, 3 vols., ed. and trans. B. Evetts (1904; rpt. London, 2017).

History of the Patriarchs of the Egyptian Church known as the History of the Holy Church, vol. II/1 (849-880) (Cairo, 1943); vol. II/2-3 (880-1206) (Cairo, 1948); vol. III (1102-1894) (Cairo, 1968).

Lola Atiya, An Index to the History of the Patriarchs of the Coptic Church (Salt Lake City UT, 2010).

Atiye S. Aziz, A History of Eastern Christianity, 2nd ed. (Millwood, 1980).

Otto F. A. Meinardus, Two Thousand Years of Coptic Christianity, 2nd printing (Cairo, 2000).

Jill Kamil, Christianity in the Land of the Pharaohs: The Coptic Orthodox Church (London, 2002).

Languages and Cultures of Eastern Christianity: Coptic, ed. Arietta Papaconstantinou, The Worlds of Eastern Christianity, 300-1500 (Farnham, Surrey, 2018).

The Roots of Egyptian Christianity, ed. Birger A. Pearson and James E. Goehring (Philadelphia, 1986).


A Bibliography on Christianity in Ethiopia

Languages and Cultures of Eastern Christianity: Ethiopian, ed. Alessandro Bausi, The Worlds of Eastern Christianity, 300-1500 (Farnham, Surrey, 2012).


Henry Mayr-HartingChurch and Cosmos in Early Ottonian Germany: The View from Cologne (Oxford, 2007).

Henry ParkesThe Making of Liturgy in the Ottonian Church: Books, Music and Ritual in Mainz, 950-1050, Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought, Fourth Series 100 (Cambridge, 2015).


Robert Schick, The Christian Communities of Palestine from Byzantine to Islamic Rule: A Historical and Archaelogical Study (Princeton, 1995).

John Spencer Trimingham, Christianity among the Arabs in Pre-Islamic Times (London, 1979).

Languages and Cultures of Eastern Christianity: Arabic, ed. Mark N. Swanson, The Worlds of Eastern Christianity, 300-1500 (Farnham, Surrey, ).


Tommaso di Carpegna Falconieri and Valeria Beolchini, “Bibliografia di storia di Roma in età medievale (1996-2003),” Reti Medievali Rivista 6 (2005), 119-26.


A Comprehensive Bibliography on Syriac Christianity An annotated bibliography of Syriac resources online

Sebastian Brock, An Introduction to Syriac Studies, 3rd ed. (Piscataway NJ, 2016).

Sebastian Brock, Syriac Studies: A Classified Bibliography (1960-1990) (Kaslik, 1996).

Kristian S. Heal, “Corpora, eLibraries and Databases: Locating Syriac Studies in the 21st Century,” Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies 15 (2012): 65-78.

The Syriac World, ed. Daniel King (New York, 2018).

W. Stewart McCullough, A Short History of Syriac Christianity to the Rise of Islam (Chico, 1982).

Robert Murray, Symbols of Church and Kingdom: A Study in Early Syriac Tradition (Cambridge, 1975).

Languages and Cultures of Eastern Christianity: Syriac (East), ed. Muriel Debié and David Taylor, The Worlds of Eastern Christianity, 300-1500 (Farnham, Surrey, ).

Languages and Cultures of Eastern Christianity: Syriac (West), ed. David Taylor, The Worlds of Eastern Christianity, 300-1500 (Farnham, Surrey, ).

Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies (1998- ). Many issues include sections on “Recent Publications on Syriac Topics” and “Bibliography of Syriac and Christian Arabic Studies in Russian.”


(see also Monasticism and Religious Orders)

General Reference Works

See also the separate bibliography on Medieval History and Historical Sources: IV. Places and Persons

ACOLIT: autori cattolici e opere liturgiche: una lista di autorità, vol. 2: Ordini religiosi / Catholic Religious Orders, ed. Silvana Chistè and Lino Mocatti (Rome, 2000). 

K. Eubel, Hierarchia catholica medii aevi, 2 vols. (Regensburg, 1913-1935). Covers the period 1198-1503. Liber I covers Popes and g, the latter listed first chronologically (Pars 1), then by their ecclesiastical ranks, then by name. Liber II covers patriarchs, archbishops, and bishops, organized by the Latin name of their sees listed alphabetically. To find a list of the bishops and archbishops of a particular see, consult the alphabetical index of the modern vernacular names of the sees (e.g., looking up “York” will direct you to page 200, where you will find the entry for “Eboracen[sis] (York)” and a chronological list of the archbishops of York with the dates of each archbishop’s tenure. Appendices list (I) provinces and dioceses by region and (II) suffragen and auxiliary bishops.

P. B. Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesia Catholica (Leipzg, 1876-1883; repr. in one vol.).   Organized geographically by province and diocese. Use the “Index geographicus” (pp. 957-63) to locate a particular see. Being superseded by the following:

Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae occidentalis: ab initio usque ad annum MCXCVIII, ed. S. Weinfurter and O. Engels (Stuttgart, 1982- )  Ser. 5. Germania: T. 1. Archiepiscopatus Coloniensis; T. 2. Archiepiscopatus hammaburgensis sive bremensis; Ser. 6. Britannia, Scotia et Hibernia, Scandinavia: T. 1. Ecclesia scoticana; T. 2. Archiepiscopatus lundensis.

Europa Sacra. Online Brepolis database combining Eubel and Gams.

Bibliographie des Fasti

Patterns of Episcopal Power: Bishops in Tenth and Eleventh Century Western Europe / Strukturen bischöflicher Herrschaftsgewalt im westlichen Europa des 10. und 11. Jahrhunderts, ed. Ludger Körntgen and Dominik Waßenhoven (Berlin, 2011). Includes a “Selective Bibliography of Bishops in Medieval Europe, from 1980 to the Present Day,” pp. 163-224.

Julia Barrow, “Pastors and Prelates: Bishops in England, France and Germany 950-1100 HIST3510” [course bibliography].

Julia Barrow, “The Bishop in the Latin West 600-1100,” in Celibate and Childless Men in Power:  Ruling Eunuchs and Bishops in the Pre-modern World, ed. Almut Hofert et al. (Abingdon, 2018), pp. 43-64.

The Bishop: Power and Piety at the First Millennium, ed. Sean Gilsdorf (Munster, 2004).

The Bishop Reformed: Studies of Episcopal Power and Culture in the Central Middle Ages, ed. John S. Ott and Anna Trumbore Jones (Aldershot, 2007).

Envisioning the Bishop: Images and the Episcopacy in the Middle Ages, ed. Sigrid Danielson and Evan A. Gatti, Medieval Church Studies 29 (Turnhout, 2014).

Geschichte des Kardinalats im Mittelalter, ed. Jürgen Dendorfer and Ralf Lützelschwab, Päpste und Papstum 39 (Stuttgart, 2011). 

Die Kardinäle des Mittelalters und der Frühen Renaissance, ed. Jürgen Denorfer and Ralf Lützelschwab, Millennio Medioevo 95 (Florence, 2013).

M. Sot, Gesta episcoporum, gesta abbatum, Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental 7 (Turnhout, 1981).

N. Coulet, Les visites pastorales, Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental 23 (Turnhout, 1977).

J. Oberste, Die Dokumente der klösterlichen Visitationen, Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental 80 (Turnhout, 1999). 

A Companion to Priesthood and Holy Orders in the Middle Ages, ed. Greg Peters and C. Colt Anderson (Leiden, 2015). 

Mª Milagros Cárcel Ortí, “El clero secular en Europa en la Baja Edad Media. Bibliografía,” Anuario de Estudios Medievales 35 (2005), 971-1047.

Julia Barrow, The Clergy in the Medieval World: Secular Clerics, Their Families and Careers in North-Western Europe, c.800–c.1200 (Cambridge, 2015). 

Men in the Middle: Local Priests in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Stefan Patzold and Carine van Rhijn, Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde Ergänzungsbände 93 (Berlin, 2016).  Table of Contents.

Roger E. Reynolds, Clerics in the Early Middle Ages: Hierarchy and Image (Aldershot, 1999).

Roger E. Reynolds, Clerical Orders in the Early Middle Ages: Duties and Ordination (Aldershot, 1999).

For archdeaconsdeacons and deaconesses see the references in the entries in The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church.  Add:

The Archdeacons of Medieval Europe. Includes an “Archdiaconal Bibliography.”

Jeannine E. Olson, One Ministry, Many Roles: Deacons and Deaconesses through the Centuries (St. Louis, 1992). 

Susan Wood, The Proprietary Church in the Medieval West (Oxford, 2006). 

Gary Macy, The Hidden History of Women’s Ordination: Female Clergy in the Medieval West (Oxford, 2008). 

See also Jacques Dubois and Jean-Loup Lemaitre, Sources et méthodes de l’hagiographie médiévale (Paris, 1993), pp. 162-90.   In Medioevo Latino see the section “Istituzioni–Storia delle chiese cattedrale e locali.”

On ecclesiastical dress see:

Dobrila-Donya Schimansky, “The Study of Medieval Ecclesiastical Costumes: A Bibliography and Glossary,” The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 29 (1971), 313-17.

Gale R. Owen-Crocker, “Ecclesiastical Dress”, in Encyclopedia of Medieval Dress and Textiles of the British Isles c. 450-1450, ed. Gale R. Owen-Crocker et al. (Leiden, 2012).

England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland:

Joel Rosenthal, “Christianity and the Church in Pre-Conquest England,” Oxford Bibliographies.

Joel Rosenthal, “Christianity and the Church in Post-Conquest England,” Oxford Bibliographies.

Ecclesiastical Hierarchy:

For the Anglo-Saxon period, consult the Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England. Select Persons > Office > [a particular one, such as “Abbot”) and/or Possession or Location > [a particular one, such as “Tavistock”).

A. Hamilton Thompson, The English Clergy and Their Organization in the Later Middle Ages (Oxford, 1947)

Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae, 1066-1300, rev. ed., 8 vols. (London, 1968-2003). : 1. St. Paul’s, London; 2. Monastic cathedrals (Northern and southern provinces); 3. Lincoln; 4. Salisbury; 5. Chichester; 6. York; 8. Hereford.

Fasti ecclesiae anglicanae 1300-1541, 12 vols. (London, 1962-67). . 1. Lincoln Diocese; 2. Hereford Diocese; 3. Salisbury Diocese; 4. Monastic cathedrals; 5. St. Paul’s, London; 6. Northern Province; 7. Chichester Diocese; 8. Bath and Wells Diocese; 9. Exeter Diocese; 10. Coventry and Lichfield Diocese; 11. The Welsh Dioceses; 12. Introduction, errata and index.

English Episcopal Acta (London, 1980- ).

Facsimiles of English Episcopal Acta, 1085-1305, ed. Martin Brett (London, 2012). 

Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae occidentalis: ab initio usque ad annum MCXCVIII,Series VI: Britannia, Scotia et Hibernia, Scandinavia, Tomus 1: Ecclesia Scoticana, ed. D. E. R. Watt (Stuttgart, 1991).

Fasti eccelsiae scoticanae medii aevi ad annum 1638, rev. ed. D. E. R. Watt and L. Murray, Scottish Record Society (Edinburgh, 2003).

Scottish Episcopal Acta, vol. 1: The Twelfth Century, ed. Norman F. Shead, Scottish History Society Sixth Series 10 (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2016).

David M. Smith, Guide to the Bishops’ Registers of England and Wales: A Survey from the Middle Ages to the Abolition of the Episcopacy in 1646 (London, 1981). 

David M. Smith, Supplement to the Guide to Bishops’ Registers of England and Wales: A Survey from the Middle Ages to the Abolition of Episcopacy in 1646 (York, 2004).

Joan Greatrex, Biographical Register of the English Cathedral Priories of the Province of Canterbury, c. 1066-1540 (Oxford, 1997).

Hugh M. Thomas, The Secular Clergy in England, 1066-1216 (Oxford, 2014). 

George L. Hennessy, Novum repertorium ecclesiasticum parochiale Londinense or, London Diocesan Clergy Succession from the Earliest Time to the Year 1898, 2 vols.: vol. 1 (London, 1898).

Religious Houses:

Walter de Gray Birch, Fasti Monastici Aevi Saxonici: An Alphabetical List of the Heads of Religious Houses in England Previous to the Norman Conquest (London, 1873). 

Medieval Source Material on the Internet: Church Records and Religious Houses

Sources for the History of Religious Houses and Their Lands, C.1000-1530 (National Archives).

David Knowles and R. Neville HadcockMedieval Religious Houses, England and Wales (New York, 1972).

Aubrey Gwynn and R. Neville Hadcock, Medieval Religious Houses, Ireland (London, 1970).

I. B. Cowan and David Easson, Medieval Religious Houses: Scotland, 2nd ed. (London, 1976).

Donald E. R. Watt and Norman F. Shead, The Heads of Religious Houses in Scotland from Twelfth to Sixteenth Centuries, Scottish Record Society 24 (Edinburgh, 2001). 

David Knowles, C. N. L. Brooke and V. C. M. London, The Heads of Religious Houses: England and Wales I: 940-1216, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, 2001).

David M. Smith and Vera C. M. London, The Heads of Religious Houses: England and Wales, 1216-1377 (Cambridge, 2001).

David M. Smith, The Heads of Religious Houses: England and Wales III: 1377-1540 (Cambridge, 2008).

Joan Greatrex, Biographical Register of the English Cathedral Priories of the Province of Canterbury, c. 1066-1540 (Oxford, 1997).

Victoria County History (London, 1900- ). 

Henry Cotton, Fasti Ecclesiae Hiberniae, 5 vols. (Dublin, 1851).

Ecclesiastical Records:

Janet Foster and Julia Sheppard, British Archives: A Guide to Archive Resources in the United Kingdom, 4th ed. (New York, 2002).  Use the Main Index and Key Subject Guide to locate relevant sections.

Primary Sources: Ecclesiastical Sources (British History Online). Includes Ecclesiastical Court Records; Monastic and Cathedral Records; Parochial Records; Religious Organisations.

English Monastic Archives

Early Medieval Record-Keeping. Focuses on Worcester Archives.

G. R. Elton, England, 1200-1640, The Sources of History (Ithaca NY, 1969).  See chap. 3: Official Records: The Church.

Richard Britnell, ed., Pragmatic Literacy, East and West 1200-1330 (Cambridge, 1997).   Robert Swanson‘s “Universis Christi Fidelibus: The Church and its Records,” pp. 147-64, focuses on the English church.

C. R. Cheney, English Bishops’ Chanceries, 1100-1250 (Manchester, 1950).

Church Authority and Power in Medieval and Modern England: The Episcopal Registers. Gale Primary Source Media microfilm series. 

Dorothy M. Owen, Medieval Records in Print: Bishops’ Registers (London, 1982). 

D. M. Smith, Guide to Bishop’s Registers of England and Wales: A Survey from the Middle Ages to the Abolition of Episcopacy in 1646 (London, 1981).

D. M. Smith, Supplement to the Guide to Bishop’s Registers of England and Wales: A Survey from the Middle Ages to the Abolition of Episcopacy in 1646 (London, 2004). 

Episcopal Rolls and Registers (Linconshire Archives)

William J. Dohar, “Medieval Ordination Lists: The Origins of a Record,” Archives 20 (1992), 17-35.

Medieval Source Material on the Internet: Church Records and Religious Houses

Scottish Medieval Bibliography: Published Primary Sources: Church Records

Philomela Connolly, Medieval Record Sources (Dublin, 2002).  Devoted to Irish sources, 12th through 15th centuries.

Property and Privilege in Medieval and Early Modern England: Cartularies from the British Library. Gale Microfilm series. 

Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe:

On the historiographical and political complications involved in the regional terms “Central Europe,” “East Central Europe,” and “Eastern Europe” see Nora Berend, “The Mirage of East Central Europe: Historical Regions in a Comparative Perspective,”  in Medieval East Central Europe in a Comparative Perspective: From Frontier Zones to Lands in Focus, ed. Gerhard Jaritz, Katalin Szende (New York , 2016). The omnibus category “Central and Eastern Europe” has been adopted here as a bibliographical convenience, with some subdivisions that reflect contemporary academic usage. To date it has not been possible to include coverage of all individual constituent nation-states of these regions.

Bohemia–Ecclesiastical Organization

Hungary–Ecclesiastical Organization

Poland–Ecclesiastical Organization

Rus–Ecclesiastical Organization


Fasti ecclesiae Gallicanae: Répertoire prosopographique des évêques, dignitaires et chanoines de France de 1200 à1500, ed. Hélène Millet (Turnhout, 1996- ). 13 vols. to date.

Bibliographie des Fasti (Excel File).

Gallia christiana in provincias eclesiásticas distributa, 13 vols. (Paris, 1715-85); vols. 14-16, ed. B. Hauréau (Paris, 1856-65). 

Joseph AlbanésGallia christiana novissima. Histoire des archeveches, eveches & abbayes de France … 7 vols. (Montbeliard, 1899-1920).  1: Aix, Apt, Frejus, Gap, Riez & Sisteron; 2: Marseille; 3: Arles; 4: Saint-Paul-Trois-Chateaux; 5: Toulon; 6: Orange; 7: Avignon.

J.-.M. Besse, Abbayes et prieurés de l’ancienne France: recueil historique des archeveches, eveches, abbayes et prieurés de France (Paris, 1905- ). 1. Paris; 2. Aix, Arles, Avignon et Embrum; 3. Auch & Bordeaux; 4. Alby, Narbonne & Toulouse; 5. Bourges; 6. Sens; 7. Rouen; 8. Tours; 9. Vienne; 10. Lyon, 1st pt. Dioceses Lyon & Saint-Claude; 12. Lyon, 3rd pt. Dioceses Langres & Dijon.

Gallia christiana in provincias ecclesiasticas distributa, 16 vols. (Paris, 1716-1865).

Louis Duchesne, Fastes épiscopaux de l’ancienne Gaule, 3 vols. (Paris, 1907-15): t. 1. Provinces du Sud-est.–t. 2. L’Aquitaine et les Lyonnaises.–t. 3. Les provinces du Nord et de l’Est. Covers up to the end of the 9th century.

Robert Godding, Prêtres en Gaule mérovingienne, Subsidia hagiographica, 82 (Brussels, 2001).

Émile Lesne, Histoire de la propriété ecclésiastique en France, 6 vols., Mémoires et travaux publiée par des professeurs de la faculté Catholique de Lille, fasc. 6 (Lille, 1910-43).

Revue Mabillon (1905- ).  From 1990- renumbered as a Brepols publication.

Germany, Austria, Switzerland:

Germania Sacra.  Covers the Holy Roman Empire. Includes a Digital Index of Persons and a Database of Monasteries.

Clerics Database of Germania Sacra.

Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römische Reiches, 1198 bis 1448: Ein biographisches Lexikon, ed. Erwin Ganz with Klemens Brodkorb (Berlin, 2001).  Online list of entries.

Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae occidentalis: ab initio usque ad annum MCXCVIII, Series V: Germania, 1: Archiepiscopatus Coloniensis, ed. H. Kluger and E. Pack; 2: Archiepiscopatus Hammaburgensis sive Bremensis, ed. H. Kluger et al.

Repertorium Geschichtsquellen des deutschen Mittelalters. Covers narrative historical sources relating to the German-speaking realms between 750 and 1500. Materials drawn from the Repertorium Fontium and updated. Includes lists of sources by Author and Text; a Thesaurus of places, keywords, textual transmission (including editions), religious houses, saints, and persons.

Helvetia Sacra. Historische Darstellung der Bistümer, Kollegiatstifte und Klöster in der Schweiz. The website includes an index and a search engine.


E. Flórez, España Sagrada. Teatro geográfico-histórico de la Iglesia de España, 51 vols. (Madrid, 1747-79). 

Sistema Informático para apoio ao Estudo Prosopográfico (SIEP).  Includes a Fasti Ecclesiae Portugaliae project. Does not seem to be searchable (9/16).

Maria do Rosario Barbosa Morujao, Fasti Ecclesiae Portugaliae: Prosopografia do clero catedralício português (1071-1325)(Lisbon, 2010).


Ferdinando Ughelli, Italia Sacra, sive De episcopis Italiae et insularum adjacentium, rebusque abiis praeclare gestis…, 2nd ed., 11 vols. (Venice, 1717-22).

Pietro Burchi, Antonio Samaritani, and Francesco BoncompagniBibliotheca ecclesiarum Italiae, I/1: L’Emilia-Romagna. Comacchio, Cesena, Brescello (Rome, 1965). 

Italia Sacra. Studi e documenti di storia ecclesiastica, vols. 1-85 (Padua and Rome, 1959-2011); Italia Sacra. Nuove serie (2014- )

Fedele Savio, Gli antichi vescovi d’Italia dalle origini al 1300, 4 vols. (Turin, 1899-32). 

Francesco Lanzoni, Le diocesi d’Italia dalle origini al principio del secolo VII (an. 604), 2 vols., Studi e testi 35 (Faenza, 1937). 

Emanuele Curzel, L’organizzazione ecclesiastica nelle campagne. Includes extensive bibliography.

L. Mascanzoni, Pievi e parrocchie in Italia. Saggio di bibliografia storica, 2 vols. (Bologna, 1988-1989). 

Ecclesiastical archives:

Rocco Bevacqua, “Vademecum” per l’archivista ecclesiastico (Reggio Calabria, 1978). 

Vincenzo Monachino, Guida degli archivi diocesani d’Italia, 2 vols. (Rome, 1990-94). 

Salvatore Palese et al., Guida degli archivi capitolari d’Italia (Rome, 2000). 

Low Countries:

Handbook of Dutch Church History, ed. Herman J. Selderhuis (Göttingen, 2014).  Includes chapters on “The Middle Ages to 1200” (pp. 17-98) and “The Middle Ages After 1200” (pp. 99-156). 

Nederlands Archief voor Kerkgeschiedenis / Dutch Review of Church History (1902- ). 


Mickael Wilmart, “L’Eglise et les pratiques chrétiennes en Scandinavie au moyen âge” (bibliography).

Birgit Sawyer and Peter Sawyer, Medieval Scandinavia from Conversion to Reformation, circa 800-1500, The Nordic Series 17 (Minneapolis, 1993). 

Martin Syrett, Scandinavian History in the Viking Age: A Select Bibliography, 3rd ed., rev. Haki Antonsson and Jonathan Grove (Cambridge, 2004).  See section L: Christianity.

Karl Fr. Wisløf, Norske kirkehistorie, 3 vols. (Lutherstiftelsen, 1966-71). 

Erika Sigurdsson, The Church in Fourteenth-Century Iceland: The Formation of an Elite Clerical Identity (Leiden, 2016). 

Denmark–Ecclesiastical Organization

Norway–Ecclesiastical Organization

Sweden–Ecclesiastical Organization

Dictionary of Swedish National Biography.  In addition to searching for known ecclesiastical figures, you can browse occupations.  Select “Katolska kyrkan före 1527.”


(see also Ecclesiastical Hierarchy and Religious Houses)

General Reference Works:

André Vauchez and Cécile CabyL’histoire des moines, chanoines et religieux au Moyen Âge: Guide de recherche et documents, L’Atelier du Médiéviste 9 (Turnhout, 2004). 

Bulletin d’histoire bénédictine (1907-2011).  Bibliographical supplement to the journal Revue Bénédictine.

Giles Constable, Medieval Monasticism, Toronto Medieval Bibliographies (Toronto, 1976).

Albrecht Diem, Bibliography on the History of Monasticism in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages

Monastic Research Bulletin (1995- ). 

Encyclopedia of Monasticism, ed. William M. Johnson, 2 vols (Chicago, 2000). 

Dizionario degli istituti di perfezione, 10 vols. ed. Guerrino Pelliccia and Giancarlo Rocca (Rome, 1974-2003). 

Anne-Marie Helvétius and Michael Kaplan, “Asceticism and Its Institutions,” in The Cambridge History of Christianity, vol. 3, pp. 275-98. 

Wendy Davies, “Monastic Landscapes and Society,” in The Oxford Handbook of Medieval Christianity, ed. Arnold, pp. 132-47. 

Constance H. Berman, “Medieval Monasticisms,” in The Oxford Handbook of Medieval Christianity, ed. Arnold, pp. 377-95. 

Catalogue-cartes de la Bibliothèque de Maredsous. Online reproductions of the card-files of the Benedictine Abbey library of Maredsous.

L. H. CottineauRépertoire topo-bibliographique des abbayes et prieurés, 2 vols., with Supplément by G. Poras (Mâcon, 1935-70).  Covers regular houses; the supplement has a subject index, table of abbreviations and a Latin index of place names. In the subject index under “Chronicon” is an alphabetical list of the major narrative sources for each foundation. For more recent literature consult Medioevo Latino and the Bulletin d’histoire bénédictine (1907- ). Archival database currently focused on Austria, Switzerland, Italy, and Central Europe.

Monastic Manuscript Project

Dove va la storiografia monastica in Europa? Temi e metodi di ricerca per lo studio della vita monastica e regolare in età medievale alle soglie del terzo millennio, ed. Giancarlo Andenna (Milan, 2001).

Moines et monastères dans les sociétés de rite grec et latin, ed. J.-L. Lemaitre, M. Dmitriev, and P. Gonneau (Genève, 1996).

André Vauchez and C. Caby, ed., L’histoire des moines, chanoines réguliers et frères mendiants au Moyen âge: sources et méthodes, Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental 9 (Turnhout, 2004) 

Peter Dinzelbacher and James Hogg, Kulturgeschichte der christlichen Orden in Einzeldarstellungen (Stuttgart, 1997). 

Jean LeclercqThe Love of Learning and the Desire for God: A Study of Monastic Culture, trans. C. Misrahi (New York, 1982). 

Dizionario degli istituti di perfezione, ed. Guerrino Pelliccia and Giancarlo Rocca, 10 vols. (1974-2003).

Journal of Medieval Monastic Studies (2012- ) 

Florent Cygler, Das Generalkapitel im hohen Mittelalter. Cisterzienser, Praëmonstratenser, Kartäuser und Cluniazenser (Münster, 2002).

Monastic rules:

Eligius Dekkers, Clavis Patrum Latinorum, 3rd ed. (Steenbrugge, 1995), pp. 597-610. 

Adalbert de Vogüé, Les règles monastiques anciennes: 400-700, Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental 46 (Turnhout, 1985). 

Jean-Marie Clément, Lexique des anciennes règles monastiques occidentales, Instrumenta Patristica 7A-B (Steenbrugge, 1978).

Christof Joest, Bibelstellenkonkordanz zu den wichtigsten älteren Mönchsregeln, Instrumenta Patristica 9 (Steenbrugge, 1994).

Terence P. McLaughlinLe trés ancien droit monastique de l’Occident. Étude sur le développement général du monachisme et ses rapports avec l’Église séculière et le monde laïque de Saint Benoît de Nursie à Saint Benoît d’Aniane (Paris, 1935).

Sr. Aquinata Böckmann, “A Bibliography for Students of the Rule of Saint Benedict”

Regulae – Consuetudines – Statuta: studi sulle fonti normative degli ordini religiosi nei secoli centrali del Medioevo, ed.
Cristina Andenna and Gert Melville (Münster, 2005).

Monastic customaries:

Bruno Albers, Consuetudines Monasticae, 5 vols. (Stuttgart, 1911-12).

Kassius Hallinger, ed. Corpus consuetudinum monasticarum (Siegburg, 1963- ).

Regulae – Consuetudines – Statuta: studi sulle fonti normative degli ordini religiosi nei secoli centrali del Medioevo, ed.
Cristina Andenna and Gert Melville (Münster, 2005).

Consuetudines et regulae: Sources for Monastic Life in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period, ed. C. M. Malone and C. Maines (Turnhout, 2014). 

Kassius Hallinger, “Consuetudo: Begriff, Formen, Forschungsgeschichte, Inhalt,” in Untersuchungen zu Kloster und Stift, Veröffentlichungen des Max-Planck-Instituts für Geschichte 68 (Göttingen, 1980), pp. 140-66.

L. Donnat, “Les coutumes monastiques autour de l’an Mil,” in Religion et culture autour de l’an Mil: Royaume capétien et Lotharingie, ed. Dominique Iogna-Prat and J.-C. Picard (Paris, 1990), pp. 17-24. 

L. Donnat, “Les coutumiers monastiques: Une nouvelle entreprise et un territoire nouveau,” Revue Mabillon n.s. 3 (1992), 5-21. 

For abbeys, priories, and other religious houses see the references above in the section Ecclesiastical Hierarchy and Religious Houses

Major Orders

Gaston Duchet-Suchaux and Monique Duchet-Suchaux, Les ordres religieux: guide historique (Paris, 1993). 

Richard Sharpe, “Bibliographical Traditions of Religious Orders” in his Titulus: Identifying Medieval Latin Texts (Turnhout, 2003), pp. 290-96. 

Vita-Religiosa: Ordensforschung im Netz

Ordensgeschichtliche Bibliographie und Recherche im Internet, by Eric Steinhauer.

Bulletin du CERCOR (Centre européen de recherches sur les congrégations et ordres religieux). Recent issues available through the online Bulletin du Centre d’études médiévales de Auxerre.

See also the section “Ordengeschichte” in Schuler, Grundbibliographie.


Oliver L. Kapsner, A Benedictine Bibliography: An Author-Subject Union List (Collegeville MN, 1962; repr. 1982), with Supplement (1982).

James G. Clark, The Benedictines in the Middle Ages (Woodbridge, 2011).

Martin Heale, “Benedictines After 1100,” Oxford Bibliographies.

Revue Bénédictine (1884- ).

Ursmer Berlière, “Les chapitres généraux de l’Ordre de Saint Benoît avant le IVe concile de Latran (1215),” Revue Bénédictine 8 (1891), 255-64; “Les chapitres généraux de l’ordre de Saint Benoit du XIIIe au XVe siècle,” Revue Bénédictine 9 (1892), 545-57; “Les chapitres généraux de l’Ordre de Saint Benoît,” Revue Bénédictine 18 (1901), 364-98; 19 (1902), 38-75, 268-78, 374-411; 22 (1905), 377-97.


ABC – Antica biblioteca camaldolese in Mirabile: Digital Archives for Medieval Latin Culture is a “census of all the extant Camaldolese manuscripts from the beginning to the 17th century.”

Giuseppe Vedovato, Camaldoli e la sua congregazione dalle origini al 1184. Storia e documentazione, Italia Benedettina 13 (Cesena, 1994). 

Cécile Caby, De l’éremitisme rural au monachisme urbain. Les Camaldules en Italie à la fin du Moyen Âge, Bibliothèque des Écoles françaises d’Athènes et de Rome 305 (Rome, 1999). 

Canons Regular/Augustinians:

Martin Heale, “Canons Regular,” Oxford Bibliographies.

Bibliography on Canons Regular

“Les chanoines regulieres (Victorins — Augustiniens)” (bibliography).

Sous le Règle de saint Augustine

Les chanoines réguliers: émergence et expansion (XIe – XIIIe siècles). Actes du sixième colloque international du CERCOR, Le Puy en Velay, 29 juin – 1er juillet 2006, ed. Michel Parisse (Saint-Étienne, 2009).


Bibliotheca Carmelitana Nova

Medieval Carmelite Literature: Select Biblilography

Frances Andrews, The Other Friars: The Carmelite, Augustinian, Sack and Pied Friars in the Middle Ages (Woodbridge, 2006).

Archivum generale Ordinis Carmelitarum


Cartusiana. Includes a searchable bibliography and prosopography.

Analecta Cartusiana (1970- ).

Florent Cygler, “Le chapitre général cartusien au XIIIe siècle,” in L’ordre des chartreux au XIIIe siècle, VIIIe centenaire de la Fondation de la Chartreuse de Valbonne, 11-13 juin 2004, ed. Christiane Pérez, Analecta Cartusiana 234 (Salzburg, 2006), pp. 35-48


ARCCIS. Petit Bibliographie Cistercienne, version 2.0 (October 2008)

CISTOPEDIA: Encyclopedia Cisterciensis. Includes a general Bibliography as well as “Special bibliographies on Cistercian subjects” and “New Cistercian publications since 2001.”

The Cambridge Companion to the Cistercian Order, ed. Mette Burkedah Bruun (Cambridge, 2013). Includes a bibliography of primary sources and of further reading.

Emilia Jamroziak, The Cistercian Order in Medieval Europe: 1090-1500 (New York, 2013).

Janet E. Burton and Julie Kerr, The Cistercians in the Middle Ages (Woodbridge, 2011).

Die Zisterzienser. Ordenleben zwischen Ideal und Wirklichkeit, 2 vols., ed. K. Elm, P. Jorichsen, and H. J. Roth (Cologne, 1980-92).

James France, Separate but Equal: Cistercian Lay Brothers 1120-1350, Cistercian Studies 246 (Collegeville MN, 2012).

Elke Goez, “Aktuelle Fragen der Zisterzienserforschung.”

Cristina Sereno, “Certosini e cistercensi”

Émile Brouette, Anselme Dimier et Eugène Manning, Dictionnaire d’auteurs cisterciennes, La Documention cistercienne 16/1 (Rochefort, 1975- ).

Les cisterciens et la transmission des textes (XIIe-XVIIIe siècles), ed. T. Falmagne, D. Stutzmann, and A.-M. Turcan-Verkerk, Bibliothèque d’histoire culturelle du Moyen Âge 18 (Turnhout, 2018).

Françoise de Place, Bibliographie pratique de spiritualité cistercienne médiévale (Bellefontaine, 1987).

Spiritualité cistercienne: histoire et doctrine, Bibliothèque de spiritualité chrétienne 15 (Paris, 1998).

Analecta Cisterciensia (1945- ). 

Biographie Cisterciensis. Cistercian Biography online

Cistercian Studies Quarterly (1966- ).


Cristina Sereno, “Cluny.”

Bibliographia Cluniacensis novissima

Dominique Iogna-Prat, “Bibliographie clunisienne (1993-1999),” Revue Mabillon n.s. 11 (2000), 269-77.

Sébastien Barret, “Cluniacensia bibliographia minima,” Revue Mabillon n.s. 22 (2011), 291-303.

Dominique Iogna-Prat and Christian Sapin, “Les études clunisiennes dans tous leurs états: rencontres de  Cluny, 21-22 septembre 1993),” Revue Mabillon 66 (1994), 233-65.

Dietrich Poek, Cluniacensis ecclesia: Der cluniacensische Klosterverband (10.-12. Jahrhundert) (Munich, 1998).

Philippe Racinet, Les maisons de l’ordre de Cluny au moyen âge: évolution et permanence d’un ancien ordre bénédictin au nord de Paris (Louvain, 1990).


Charles E. Auth, J. R. Emond, and J. A. DriscollA Dominican Bibliography and Book of Reference, 1216-1992: A List of Works in English by and about Members of the Order of Friars Preachers, founded by St. Dominic De Guzman (c. 1171-1221) and confirmed by Pope Honorius III, December 22, 1216, 2nd ed. (New York, 2000). 

Thomas Kaeppeli and Emilio PanellaScriptores Ordinis Praedicatorum Medii Aevi, 4 vols. (Rome, 1970-93). 

William A. HinnebuschHistory of the Dominican Order: Origins and Growth to 1500, 2 vols. (New York, 1965-72). 

Alfred B. Emden, A Survey of Dominicans in England, Based on the Ordination Lists in Episcopal Registers, 1268-1538 (Rome, 1967). 

History of the Dominican Order


The Cambridge Companion to Francis of Assisi, ed. Michael J. P. Robinson (Cambridge, 2012).

The Origin, Development, and Refinement of Medieval Religious Mendicancies, ed. Donald Prudio (Leiden, 2011).

Michael Robinson, The Franciscans in the Middle Ages (Woodbridge, 2006) 

Francesco Porzio, Francesco d’Assisi: documenti e archivi, codici e biblioteche, miniature (Milan, 1982).

John R. H. Moorman, Medieval Franciscan Houses, Franciscan Institute Publications, History Series, 4 (New York, 1983).

A. G. Little, A Guide to Franciscan Studies (London, 1920).

John V. Fleming, An Introduction to the Franciscan Literature of the Middle Ages (Chicago, 1977).

Medieval Franciscan Authors, 13th-18th Century. Includes bibliographies on the Franciscan order.

Girard J. Etzkorn, Iter Vaticanum Franciscanum: A Description of Some One Hundred Manuscripts of the Vaticanus Latinus Collection (Leiden, 1996).

Corpus des Sources Franciscaines

E. B. Fitzmaurice and A. G. Little, Materials for the History of the Franciscan Province of Ireland, A.D. 1230-1450 (Manchester, 1920, rpt. 1966).

The Medieval Franciscans (Brill series, 17 vols. to date).

Augustinians Friars:

Historical Bibliography of the Augustinian Order

E. Gindele, Bibliographie zur Geschichte und Theologie des Augustiner-Eremitenordens, bis zum Beginn der Reformation (Berlin, 1977).

For English Franciscans see under “Great Britain” below.


The Boston College Jesuit Bibliography. The New Sommervogel Online. Brill database.

The Cambridge Companion to the Jesuits, ed. Thomas Worcester (Cambridge, 2008). 

Military Orders:

The Military Orders, ed. Malcolm Barber et al., 3 vols. (Aldershot, 1994-2008). 

Alan Forey, From the Twelfth to the Early Fourteenth Centuries (Basingstoke, 1992).

Prier et combattre: Dictionnaire européen des ordres militaires au Moyen Âge, ed. Nicole Bériou and Philippe Josserand (Paris, 2009).


James Hogg, The Evolution of the Carthusian Statutes from the Consuetudines Guigonis to the Tertia Compilatio, Documents, 25 vols. (Salzburg and Lewiston NY, 1989-1993).

M. A. Aston, “The Development of the Carthusian Order in Europe and Britain: A Preliminary Survey,” in In Search of Cult: Archaeological Investigations in Honour of Philip Ratz (Woodbridge, 1993), pp. 139-51.

C. J. Boyd, “The Premonstratensian Order: A Preliminary Survey of Its Growth and Distribution in Medieval Europe,” in In Search of Cult: Archaeological Investigations in Honour of Philip Ratz (Woodbridge, 1993), pp. 153-85.

Florent Cygler, “Le chapitre général des prémontrés au Moyen Âge,” Analecta Praemonstratensia 81 (2005), 5-34.

Überblick über die neueste Prämonstratenserforschung

Studien zum Prämonstratenserorden, ed. Irene Crusius and Helmut Flachenecker (Göttingen, 2003).

Bernard Ardura, Abbayes, prieurés et monastères de l’ordre de Prémontre en France des origins â nos jours: dictionnaire historique et bibliographique (Nancy, 1993).

Norbert Backmund, Monasticon Praemonstratense, id est, historia circariarum atque canoniarum candidi et canonici Ordinis Praemonstratensis, 2 vols., 2nd ed. (Berlin, 1983- ).

Joseph A. Gribbin, The Premonstratensian Order in Late Medieval England (Woodbridge, 2001).


Hugo von Sankt-Viktor – Institut für Quellenkunde des Mittelalters. Includes a Corpus Victorinum, a Panorama Victorinum Datenbank with prosopographical and Victorine house and necrology databases as well as extensive bibliographies and resources.

Corpus Victorinum

Bibliotheca Victorina (Brepols series).

The Abbey and Order of St. Victor in the Twelfth Century Context and Bibliography for Readers of Victorine Texts in Translation.

Major Regions

Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe

Ines Angeli Murzaku, Monasticism in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Republics (New York, 2015). 

England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland

Monastic Research Bulletin (1995-2012).

William DugdaleMonasticon Anglicanum: A History of the Abbies and other Monasteries, Hospitals, Frieries, and Cathedral and Collegiate Churches, with the Dependencies, in England and Wales, new ed. John Caley, Henry Ellis, and Bulkeley Bandinel, 6 vols. in 8 (London, 1817-30).   Analysis of contents in Monastic Matrix.

Janet Burton, Monastic and Religious Orders in Britain 1000-1300 (Cambridge, 1994).  Includes a very substantial topically-organized select bibliography, pp. 313-32.

The Religious Orders in pre-Reformation England, ed. James. G. Clark (Woodbridge, 2002). 

David Knowles, The Monastic Order in England: A History of its Development from the Times of St Dunstan to the Fourth Lateran Council, 940-1216, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, 1966). 

David Knowles, The Religious Orders in England, 3 vols. (Cambridge, 1948-59). 1: The Old Orders, 1216-1340. The Friars, 1216-1340. The Monasteries and their World.–v. 2. The End of the Middle Ages.–v.3. The Tudor Age.

William A. Pantin, “The General and Provincial Chapters of the English Black Monks, 1215-1540,” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 4th ser. 10 (1927), 195-263.

Documents illustrating the Activities of the general and provincial Chapters of the English Black Monks, 1215-1540, ed.. W. A. Pantin, Camden Society, 3rd ser. 45, 47, 54 (London, 1931-37).

Monastic Dababase.  Can be browsed by house, order, county, period, repository, or genre.

Alison Binns, Dedications of Monastic Houses in England and Wales, 1066-1216 (Woodbridge, 1989).

Martin Heale, The Abbots and Priors of Late Medieval and Reformation England (Oxford, 2016).

Martin Heale, The Dependent Priories of Medieval English Monasteries (Woodbridge, 2004).

Ann K. Warren, Anchorites and Their Patrons in Medieval England (Berkeley, 1985).

W. A. Pantin, Documents Illustrating the Activities of the General and Provincial Chapters of the English Black Monks 1215-1540, 3 vols., Camden Society, 3rd. ser. (London, 1931-37).  The third volume has cumulative indices of manuscripts, persons and places, and subjects.

A.G. Little, “List of Custodies and Houses in the Franciscan Province of England,” in his Franciscan Papers, Lists, and Documents (Manchester, 1943), pp. 217-229.

G. R. C. Davis, Medieval Cartularies of Great Britain, rev. ed. by Claire Breay et al. (London, 2010).


Monastic Wales

Janet Burton and Karen Stöber, Abbeys and Priories of Medieval Wales (Cardiff, 2015). 

Monastic Wales: New Approaches, ed. Janet Burton and Karen Stöber (Cardiff, 2013). 

F. G. Cowley, The Monastic Order in South Wales 1066-1349 (Cardiff, 1977).

See also the works dealing with both England and Wales, under England.


Monastic Ireland

Monasticon Hibernicum Project: Early Christian Ecclesiastical Settlement in Ireland 5th to 12th Centuries. Includes an extensive bibliography.

Mervyn Archdall, Monasticon Hibernicum: or, An History of the Abbies, Priories, and Other Religious Houses in Ireland (Dublin, 1786).


Jean-François Lemarignier, Gallia monastica: tableaux et cartes de dépendences monastiques (Paris, 1974- ). Vol. 1: F. Poirier-Coutansais, Les abbayes bénédictines du diocése de Reims.

Claude Wenzler and Hervé Champollion, Abbayes et monastères de la France médiévale (Saint-Amand-Montrond, 2005).

Véronique GazeauNormannia monastica (Xe–XIIe siècle), 2 vols. (Caen, 2007). 

Thomas Sullivan, Benedictine Monks at the University of Paris, A.D. 1229-1500: A Biographical Register (Leiden, 1995).

Penelope D. Johnson, Equal in Monastic Profession: Religious Women in Medieval France (Chicago, 1991).

Germany, Austria, and Switzerland

Germania Benedictina. Standard guides by region.

Germania Sacra

Clerics Database of Germania Sacra.

Repertorium Geschichtsquellen des deutschen Mittelalters.  Covers narrative historical sources relating to the German-speaking realms between 750 and 1500. Materials drawn from the Repertorium Fontium and updated. Includes lists of sources by Author and Text; a Thesaurus of places, keywords, textual transmission (including editions), religious houses, saints, and persons.

Alfons Žák, Österreichisches Klosterbuch. Statistik der Orden und Kongregationen der katholischen Kirche in Österreich (Vienna, 1911). 

Pirmin Lindner, Monasticon Metropolis Salzburgensis antiquae. Verzeichnisse aller Aebte und Pröpste der Klöster der alten Kirchenprovinz Salzburg (Salzburg, 1908). 


Il monachesimo italiano dall’età longobarda all’età ottoniana (secc. VIII-X), 3 vols., ed. Giovanni Spinelli, Italia Benedettina 6-29 (Cesena, 2006).

Gregorio Penco, Storia del monachesimo in Italia dalle origini alla fine del medioevo (Rome, 1961).

Monasticon Italiae: Repertoire topo-bibliografico dei monasteri italiani, 3 vols. (Cesena, 1981- ).

Low Countries

Kloosterlijst: Beknopt overzicht van de Nederlandse kloosters in de Middeleeuwen.  Includes an extensive bibliography.  Now with a partial English version, Medieval Monasteries in the Netherlands: A Census.

U. Berlière et al., Monasticon Belge (Liège, 1890-2000)

Monasticon batavum, 4 vols., ed. M. Schoengen (Amsterdam 1941-1942) .  I: De Franciscaansche Orden, with Supplement by D. de Kok; II: De Augustijnsche orden benevens de broeders en zusters van het gemeene leven; III. De Benedictijnsche orden benevens de Carmelieten en Jesuieten.

Handbook of Dutch Church History, ed. Herman J. Selderhuis (Göttingen, 2014).  Includes chapters on “The Middle Ages to 1200” (pp. 17-98) and “The Middle Ages After 1200” (pp. 99-156). 


Dictionary of Swedish National Biography.  In addition to searching for known persons, you can browse occupations.  Select “Religion > Klösterväsende.”

Women Religious

Women in the Medieval Monastic World, ed. Jeffrey F. Hamburger and Susan Marti (Turnhout, 2015). 

Women Religious: Crown and Veil: Female Monasticism from the Fifth to the Fifteenth Centuries, ed. Jeffrey F. Hamburger and Susan Marti (New York, 2008).

Matthäus Bernards, Speculum virginum. Geistigkeit und Seelenleben der Frau im Hochmittelalter, Forschungen zur Volkskunde 36-38 (Cologne, 1958).

Monastic Matrix: A Scholarly Resource for the Study of Women’s Religious Communities from 400 to 1600 CE

The History of Women Religious in Britain and Ireland: Bibliography

Sarah Foot, Veiled Women, 2 vols. (Aldershot, 2000). On nuns and nunneries in Anglo-Saxon England.

Sally Thompson, Women Religious: The Founding of English Nunneries after the Norman Conquest (Oxford, 1991).

Sensual Encounters: Monastic Women and Spirituality in Medieval Germany

V. Religious Life of the Laity

See also below section V. Topical Bibliographies on Devotional and Ascetic Practices; Affective Piety; ParishesPastoral CarePenance and Penitentials; and Pilgrimage; as well as the sections on Sacraments in the separate bibliography on Medieval Liturgy, on Private Prayer in the separate bibliography on Theology and Spirituality, and the section on Medieval Popular Culture and Religion in the separate bibliography on Medieval Folklore and Popular Culture.

Thomas Head, “The Culture of Devotion in the Later Middle Ages: A Bibliography”

André Vauchez, The Laity in the Middle Ages: Religious Beliefs and Devotional Practices, trans. Daniel E. Bornstein and Margery J. Schneider (Notre Dame, 1993).

Guy Lobrichon, La religion des laïcs en Occident, XIe-XVe siècles (Paris, 1994).

Religious and Laity in Western Europe, 1000-1400: Interaction, Negotiation, and Power, ed. Emilia Jamroziak and Janet E. Burton (Turnhout, 2006).

L’Encadrement religieux des fidèles au moyen âge et jusqu’au Concile de Trente. Actes du 109e congrès national des sociétés savantes (Paris, 1985).

Lisa Kaaren Bailey, The Religious Worlds of the Laity in Late Antique Gaul (London, 2016).

Jean Imbert, Les Temps carolingiens (741-891): L’Église: La vie des fidèles, Histoire du droit et des institutions de l’église en occident V/II, ed. Gabriel Le Bras et Jean Gaudemet (1996).

Jean Chélini, L’Aube du Moyen Age: Naissance de la chrétienté occidentale. La vie religieuse des laïcs dans l’Europe carolingienne (750-900) (Condé-sur-Noireau, 1991).

John Arnold, Belief and Unbelief in Medieval Europe (London, 2005).

Sarah Hamilton, Church and People in the Medieval West, 900-1200 (London, 2013).

R. N. Swanson, Religion and Devotion in Europe, c.1215-c.1515 (Cambridge, 1995).

Bernard Hamilton, “Religion and the Laity,” in The New Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 4: c.1024–c.1198, Part 1, ed. David Luscomb and Jonathan Riley-Smith (Cambridge, 2004), pp. 499-533.

Derek RivardBlessing the World: Ritual and Lay Piety in Medieval Religion (Washington D.C., 2009).

H. Grundmann, Religious Movements in the Middle Ages (Notre Dame IN, 1995).

I laici nella “Societas Christiana” dei secoli XI e XII:  Atti della terza settimana internazionale di Studio Mendola, 21-27 agosto 1965 (Milan, 1968).

Eamon Duffy, The Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England 1400-1580 (New Haven, 1992).

R. N. Swanson, Catholic England: Faith, Religion, and Observance Before the Reformation (Manchester, 1993).

Margaret HarveyLay Religious Life in Late Medieval Durham (Woodbridge, 2006).

Andrew D. Brown, Popular Piety in Late Medieval England: The Diocese of Salisbury 1250-1550 (Oxford, 1995).

W. A. Pantin, “Instructions for a Devout and Literate Layman,” in Medieval Learning and Literature: Essays Presented to Richard William Hunt, ed. J. J. G. Alexander and Margaret Gibson (Oxford, 1976), pp. 398-422.

Norman Tanner and Sethina Watson, “Least of the Laity: The Minimum Requirements for a Medieval Christian,” Journal of Medieval History 32 (2006), 395-423.

VI. Topical Bibliographies

THE BIBLE AND ITS INTERPRETATION (separate bibliography).


Canon Law Literature databases

Bibliographical Surveys:

Edward Peters, “Canon Law,” Oxford Bibliographies. The best first resource; includes a section on “Selected Legal Doctrines” covering “Ecclesiastical Office and Ecclesiastical Courts”; “Relations between Spiritual and Temporal Powers”; “Sex and Marriage”; “Christians and Non-Christians”; “Violence and War”; “Economic Doctrines”; “Crime and Punishment”; and “Heresy and Inquisitorial Procedure.”

Alphons Stickler, Historia juris canonici latini. Institutiones academicae, I: Historia fontium, Studia et Textus Historiae Juris Canonici 6 (Rome, 1950).

Janet L. Nelson, “Law and Its Applications,” in The Cambridge History of Christianity, vol. 3, pp. 299-326. 

G. Giordanengo in Berlioz, Identifier sources, pp. 145-76.

Guides to Primary Sources and Manuscripts:

Gérard Fransen, Les collections canoniques, Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental 10 (Turnhout, 1973). 

Gérard Fransen, Les décrétales et les collections de décrétales, Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental 2 (Turnhout, 1972). 

Brian Edwin FermeIntroduction to the History of the Sources of Canon Law: The Ancient Law up to the Decretum of Gratian, trans. William J. King (Montreal, 2007). 

Stephan Kuttner, Repertorium der kanonistik (1140-1234). Prodromus corporis glossarum (Vatican City, 1937). 

Jean Gaudemet, Les sources du droit de l’église en occident du IIe au VIIe siècle (Paris, 1985).

Jean Gaudemet, Les sources du droit canonique viiie-xxe siècle: Repères canoniques, sources occidentales (Paris, 1993). 

Lotte Kéry, Canonical Collections of the Early Middle Ages (ca. 400-1140): Bibliographical Guide to the Manuscripts and Literature (Washington, D.C., 1999). 

Manuscripta juridica (G. R. Dolezalek). Includes a database of medieval manuscripts of canon law and Roman law, and a list of canon law incipits.

Linda Fowler-Magerl, Clavis Canonum: Selected Canon Law Collections before 1140: Access with Data Processing, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Hilfmittel 21 (Hannover, 2005). Now with an online search program.

Stepthan Kuttner, A Catalogue of Canon and Roman Law Manuscripts in the Vatican Library, 2 vols. Studi e testi 328 (Vatican City, 1986).

Massimo Fornasari, Initia canonum. A primaevis collectionibus usque ad Decretum Gratiani (Rome, 1972- ).

Stephan Kuttner, Index titulorum decretalium, ex collectionibus tam privatis quam publicis conscriptus (Milan, 1977). 


Dictionnaire de droit canonique, ed. R. Naz, 7 vols. (Paris, 1935-67). 


Constant Van de Wiel, History of Canon Law (Louvain, 1991).

James A. Brundage, Medieval Canon Law (London, 1995).

Gabriel le Bras, ed., Histoire du droit et des institutions de l’église en Occident, 18 vols. (Paris: Sirey, 1956–84). 

Paul Fournier and Gabriel le BrasHistoire des collections canoniques en Occident depuis les Fausses Décrétales jusqu’au Décret de Gratien, 2 vols. (Paris, 1931-32).

Stéphane Boiron and Franck Roumy, “Chronique d’histoire du droit canonique,” L’année canonique 42 (2000), 249-82; 45 (2003), 389-443; 46 (2004), 313-425. ( 

Stéphane Boiron, “Chronique d´histoire du droit canonique” (25. Februar 2002), forum historiae iuris.

Jean Gaudemet, Eglise et cité: histoire du droit canonique (Paris, 1994). 

Friedrich MaassenGeschichte der Quellen und der Literatur des canonistischen Rechts im Abendlande bis zum Ausgange des Mittelalters (Graz, 1870). 

Hubert Mordek, Kirchenrecht und Reform im Frankreich: Die Collectio Vetus Gallica, die älteste systematische Kanonessammlung des frþnkischen Gallien (Berlin, 1975). 

Charles Munier, Les sources patristiques du droit de l’église du VIIIe au XIIIe siècle (Mulhouse, 1957).

The History of Medieval Canon Law in the Classical Period, 1140-1234: From Gratian to the Decretals of Pope Gregory IX, ed. Winfried Hartmann and Kenneth Pennington (Washington D.C., 2008). 

Richard Helmholz, The Oxford History of the Laws of England, vol. 1: The Canon Law and Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction from 597 to the 1640s (Oxford, 2004). 

Dorothy M. Owen, The Medieval Canon Law: Teaching, Literature and Transmission (Cambridge, 1990). 

Organizations and Websites:

forum historiae iuris

Iuris Canonici Medii Aevi Consociatio: International Society of Medieval Canon Law

Droit canonique

Stephen Kuttner Institute for Medieval Canon Law

Bibliography of Stephen Kuttner

Kenneth Pennington’s Home Page. Includes a list of Collections and Jurists 1140-1298 and 1298-1500, and many other valuable resources and links.

Canon Law (Otto Vervaart). Excellent resources, with a bibliography of Editions for medieval canon law and Editions for medieval canon law.

Medieval Canon Law Virtual Library

Carolingian Canon Law Project

Anglo-Saxon Canon Law

Bibliographia Iuris Synodalis Antiqui

Collections of Texts:

Corpus Iuris Canonici

Robert Somerville and Bruce C. Brasington, Prefaces to Canon Law Books in Latin Christianity: Selected Translations, 500-1245 (New Haven, 1998). 

C. H. Turner, Ecclesiae occidentalis monumenta iuris antiquissima (Oxford, 1913). 

Philip R. Amidon, Ecclesiae occidentalis monumenta iuris antiquissima: Index of Names and Selected Words (2008).

Some Major Compilations:
Benedictus Levita, False Capitularies
Burchard of Worms, Decretum (PL 140):

Gerard Fransen, “Le Decret de Burchard de Wurms. Valeur du texte de l’edition. Essai de classement des manuscrits.” Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte, Kanonistische Abteilung 93 (1977), 1-19. 

Guillaume Durand, Speculum iuris (Frankfurt, 1592). 

Cresconius, Concordia canonum:

Klaus Zechiel-Eckes, Die Concordia canonum des Cresconius. Studien und Edition, 2 vols., Freiburger Beiträge zur mittelalterlichen Geschichte, Studien und Texte 5 (Frankfurt a.M., 1992).

Pseudo-Isidore, False Decretals: 

Paul Hinschius, Decretales pseudo-Isidorianae, et Capitula Angilramni. Ad fidem librorum manuscriptorum recensuit, fontes indicavit, commentationem de collectione pseudo-Isidori (Leipzig, 1863). 

Projekt Pseudo-Isidor

Gratian, Decretum:

Decretum magistri Gratiani

Stephen Kuttner, Gratian and the Schools of Law, 1140-1234 (London, 1983). 

Anders Winroth, The Making of Gratian’s Decretum (Cambridge, 2000). 

Anthony Melnikas, The Corpus of the Miniatures in the Manuscripts of Decretum Gratiani, 3 vols. (Rome, 1975). 

Translations of Gratian’s Decretum (Anders Winroth).

Gratian. The Treatise on Laws (Decretum DD. 1-20).with the Ordinary Gloss, trans. Augustine Thompson and James Gordley, with an Introduction by Katherine Christensen (Washington D.C., 1993) 

Decretum Gratiani (First Recension) (Anders Winroth)

Rudolf Wiegand, Die Glossen zum Dekrets Gratian: Studien zu den frühen Glossen und Glossenkomposition, Stuida Gratiana 24-25 (Rome, 1991). 

Studia Gratiana (1953- ). 

D. Muzerelle, Repertorium utriusque iuris.  Analysis of the corpora of canon law in Gratian and in the Corpus Decretalium.

Gregory IX, Decretals:

Corpus Iuris Canonici, 2: Decretales Gregorii IX, ed. Emil Friedberg (Leipzig, 1881). 

Yvo of Chartres, Panormia. On-line Provisional Edition including a bibliography.


Bulletin of Medieval Canon Law (1971- ). The contents are listed in Stuart Jenks‘s Magazine Stacks.

Revue de droit canonique 

Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte, Kanonistische Abteilung 

Rechthistorische Zeitschriften (list at Forum Historie Iuris).

Ecclesiastical Courts:

The Records of the Medieval Ecclesiastical Courts: Reports of the Working Group on Church Court Records, 2 vols., ed. Charles Donahue, Jr. (Berlin, 1989- ). Pt. 1. The continent — pt. 2. England. 

Ecclesiastical Authority in England: Church Court Records, c. 1400-1660. Gale Primary Source Microfilm series. 

Cause Papers Database in the Diocesan Courts of the Archbishopric of York, 1300-1858

Consistory Database:  Testimony in the Late Medieval London Consistory Court


Silke Meckbach, “Bibliographie zur christlichen Mission im früheren Mittelalter,” in Die Kirche des frühen Mittelalters, ed. Knut Schäferdiek, Kirchengeschichte als Missionsgeschichte 2/1 (Munich, 1978), pp. 507-42.

Mathew J. dalSanto, “Conversion,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies: Terms – Methods – Trends, ed. Classen, pp. 353-69.

Lutz von Padberg, Die Inszenierung religiöser Konfrontationen: Theorie und Praxis der Missionspredigt im frühen Mittelalter (Stuttgart, 2003). 

Ian Wood, The Missionary Life: Saints and the Evangelisation of Europe, 400-1050 (Harlow, 2001).

Richard Sullivan, Christian Missionary Activity in the Earlier Middle Ages (1994). 

Varieties of Religious Conversion in the Middle Ages, ed. James Muldoon (Gainesville, 1997). 

Christianizing Peoples and Converting Individuals, ed. Guyda Armstrong and Ian N. Wood (Turnhout, 2000). 

Conversion in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages: Seeing and Believing, ed. Kenneth Mills and Anthony Grafton (Rochester, 2003). 

Studies in Christian Mission (Brill, 1999- ) 

Making Christian Landscapes in Atlantic Europe: Conversion and Consolidation in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Tomás Ó Carragáin and Sam Turner (Cork, 2016).

The Introduction of Christianity into the Early Medieval Insular World, ed. Roy Flechner and Máire Ní Mhaonaigh, Converting the Isles 1 (Turnhout, 2016).

Converting the Isles: An International Network for the Study of Conversion to Christianity in the Insular World

Anthologies de textes et documents missionnaires


(see also CANON LAW):

Bibliographies and Histories:

Eligius Dekkers, Clavis Patrum Latinorum, 3rd ed. (Steenbrugge, 1995), pp. 575-87.  Lists the major conciliar texts with references to standard editions.

Edward Peters, “Councils and Synods of the Medieval Church,” Oxford Bibliographies.

Pietro Palazzini, Dizionario dei concili, 6 vols. (Rome, 1963). 

Bibliographia Iuris Synodalis Antiqui. For general bibliography see the “Investigatio systematicus,” esp. the section “Reference books and history of synods.”

Lexikon der Konzilien

Konziliengeschichte, ed. Walter Brandmüller. Major series of monographs on councils of particular eras and regions.

Raymonde Foreville, Latran I, II, III et Latran IV, Histoire de conciles oecuméniques 6 (Paris, 1965) 

Karl Joseph von Hefele and H. Leclercq, Histoire des conciles d’aprés les documents originaux, 11 vols. (Paris, 1907-52).  Revised and expanded translation of Hefele’s German original.

Odette Pontal, Les status synodaux, Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental 11 (Turnhout, 1975). 

Rudolf Riedinger, Kleine Schriften zu den Konzilsakten des 7. Jahrhunderts, Instrumenta patristica 34 (Turnhout, 1998).

J. Sawicki, Bibliographia synodorum particularium, Monumenta iuris canonici. Series C, subsidia; vol. 2 (Vatican City, 1967).

Hermann Josef Sieben, Die Konzilsidee des lateinischen Mittelalters, 847-1378 (Paderborn, 1984).  Part of a series, Konziliengeschichte, which includes volumes on the councils of particular regions and periods.

Hermann Josef Sieben, Studien zur Gestalt und Überlieferung der Konzilien (Paderborn, 2005).

Partikularsynoden im späten Mittelalter, ed. Nathalie Kruppa and Leszek Zygner (Göttingen, 2006).

Herbert Schneider, ed., Die Konzilsordines des Früh- und Hochmittelalters, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Ordines de celebrando concilio (Hannover, 1996).

Major Collections:

G.D. Mansi, Sacrorum conciliorum, nova et amplissima collectio, 54 vols. (1901-1907; repr. Graz, 1960-62).  Organized chronologically. Use the indices in v. 36A to locate the volume concerning a particular synod. See also Henri Quentin, Jean Dominique Mansi et les grandes collections concilaires (Paris, 1900).

Philippe Labbé and Gabriel CossartSacrosancta concilia, 17 vols. in 18 (Paris, 1671-73); rev. ed. N. Coleti, 23 volumes (Venice, 1728-33). 

Ecumenical Councils:

Corpus Christianorum Conciliorum Oecumenicorum Generaliumque Decreta, gen ed. G. Alberigo and A. Melloni   Vol. 1: The Oecumenical Councils: From Nicaea I (325) to Nicaea II (787) (Turnhout, 2007); vol. 2: The General Councils of Latin Christendom: From Constantinople IV (869/870) to Lateran V (1512-1517) (Turnhout, 2013); vol. 3: The Oecumenical Councils of the Roman Catholic Church: From Trent to Vatican II (1545-1965) (Turnhout, 2010).

Acta conciliorum oecumenicorum, ed. Eduard Schwartz (Berlin, 1962- ): t. 1. Concilium universale ephesenum. 8 v.–t. 2. Concilium universale chalcedonense. 10 v. –t. 3. Collectio sabbaitica contra acephalos et orgeniastas destinata.–t. 4. Concilium universale constantinopolitanum sub Iustiniano habitum. 2 v.– Index generalis tomorum I-III. Q.  Index v. 1 includes indices by codex and author, as well as analytical tables comparing the contents with other major collections.

Acta conciliorum oecumenicorum, Series Secunda, 3 vols., ed. Rudolf Riedinger, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften (Berlin, 1984-2008). 

Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils, ed. Norman P. Tanner, 2 vols. (London, 1990). v. 1. Nicaea I to Lateran V — v. 2. Trent to Vatican II. 

The Seven Ecumenical Councils, ed. Henry R. Percival, A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church. Second series, v. 14 (New York, 1900). The canons and decrees in English translation.

G. Alberigo, et al., Les conciles oecuméniques, 1: L’histoire, trans. J. Mignon (Paris, 1994). 

G. Alberigo, et al., Les conciles oecuméniques, 2: Les décrets, trans. A. Duval et al., 2 vols. (Paris, 1994). 

Michel Mollat and Paul Tombeur, Conciles oecuméniques médiévaux, 3 vols. (Louvain, 1974-78): I. Les conciles Latran I à Latran IV: Concordance, Index, Listes de fréquence, Tables comparatives (1974); II. Les conciles Lyon I et Lyon II: Concordance, Index, Listes de fréquence, Tables comparative (1974); Le concile de Vienne: Concordance, Index, Listes de fréquence, Tables comparative (1978). 

Merovingian and Carolingian Councils and Synods:

Gregory I. Halfond, The Archaeology of Frankish Church Councils, AD 511-768 (Leiden, 2010). 

Odette Pontal, Die Synoden im Merowingerreich (Paderborn, 1986).

Odette Pontal, Histoire des conciles mérovingiens (Paris, 1989). 

Wilfried Hartmann, Die Synoden der Karolingerzeit im Frankenreich und in Italien (Paderborn, 1989).

Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Legum Sectio III: Concilia: 1: Concilia aevi Merovingici, ed. F. Maassen (Hannover, 1983); 2/1-2: Concilia aevi Karolini, ed. A. Werminghoff (Hannover, 1908); 3-4: Die Konzilien der karolingischen Teilreiche, ed. W. Hartmann (Hannover, 1984-1998).  

Jean Gaudemet and Brigitte BasdevantLes canons des conciles mérovingiens (VIe-VIIe siècles), 2 vols. Sources chrétiennes 353-54 (Paris, 1968).

Gregory I. Halfond, Archaeology of Frankish Church Councils, AD 511-768 (Leiden, 2010). 


Carlo de Clercq, La Legislation réligieuse franque. Etude sur les actes des conciles et les capitulaires, les statuts dioésains et les règles monastiques, 2 vols. (Louvain, 1936 and Antwerp, 1958).

Charles Munier and Jean Gaudemet, Conciles gaulois du IVe siècle: texte latin de l’edition, Sources chrétiennes 241 (Paris, 1977).

Odette Pontal, Les Conciles de la France capétienne jusqu’en 1215 (Paris, 1995).

André Artonne, Louis Guizard, and Odette Pontal, Répertoire des statuts synodaux des diocéses de l’ancienne France, du XIIIe à la fin du XVIIIe siècle, Documents, Études et répertoires 8 (Paris, 1964). 


Heinz Wolter, Die Synoden im Reichsgebiet und in Reichsitalien von 916 bis 1056 (Paderborn, 1988). 

Georg Gresser, Die Synoden und Konzilien in der Zeit des Reformpapsttums in Deutschland und Italien von Leo IX. bis Calixt II., 1049-1123 (Paderborn, 2006).

Die Konzilien Deutschlands und Reichsitaliens 916-1001, ed. E.-D. Hehl, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Concilia 6/1-2 (Hannover, 1987-2007).

Die Konzilien Deutschlands und Reichsitaliens 1023-1059, ed. Detlev Jasper, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Concilia 8 (Hannover, 2010).

Great Britain:

Hanna Vollrath, Die Synoden Englands bis 1066 (Paderborn, 1985).

Catherine Cubitt, Anglo-Saxon Church Councils c. 650-c. 850 (London, 1995).

Arthur West Haddan and William Stubbs, ed., Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents relating to Great Britain and Ireland (Oxford, 1869-79).  vol .I. British church during the Roman period: A.D. 200-450. British church during the period of Saxon conquest: A.D. 450-681. Church of Wales: A.D. 681-1295. Church of Cornwall: A.D. 681-1072. 1869.–vol..II,l. Church of Cumbria or Strathclyde: A.D. 600-1188. British church abroad: I. British church in Armorica: A.D. 387-818. vol. II,2. See of Breto–a in Gallicia: A.D. 569-830. Church of Scotland during the Celtic period and until declared independent of the See of York: A.D. 400-1188. 1873.–v.II,2. Church of Ireland; memorials of S. Patrick. 1878.– vol.III. English church during the Anglo-Saxon period: A.D. 595-1066. 1871.

Councils & Synods with Other Documents Relating to the English Church, 2 vols., ed. D. Whitelock, M. Brett and C. N. L. Brooke (Oxford, 1981).  1, pt. 1. 871-1066 — v. 1, pt. 2. 1066-1204.

C. R. Cheney, English Synodalia of the Thirteenth Century, 2nd ed. (Oxford, 1968).

D. E. R. Watt, Medieval Church Councils in Scotland (Edinburgh, 2000).

David N. Dumville, Councils and Synods of the Gaelic Early and Central Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1997). 


José Vives Gatell, Concilios visigóticos e hispano-romanos (Barcelona, 1963). 

J. Mellado, Léxico de los Concilios visigóticos de Toledo, 2 vols. (Córdoba, 1990).

José Orlandis, Die Synoden auf der Iberischen Halbinsel bis zum Einbruch des Islam (711). (Paderborn, 1981).

Synodicon Hispanum, ed. Antonio García y García, 4 vols. (Madrid 1981- ).


Heinz Wolter, Die Synoden im Reichsgebiet und in Reichsitalien von 916 bis 1056 (Paderborn, 1988). 

Richard C. Trexler, “Diocesan Synods in Late Medieval Italy,” in Vescovi e diocesi in Italia dal XIV alla metà del XVI secolo, ed. G. De Sandre Gasparini et al. (Rome, 1990), pp. 295-335. 

For further bibliography on national, regional, or local councils and synods, search the Regesta Imperii. Literaturdatenbank zum Mittelalter database with either “synods” or “councils” and the name of the locations.


Annuarium Historiae Conciliorum: Internationale Zeitschrift für Konziliengeschichtsforschung (1969- ).  This site has a database on the history of councils. See also the section “Concili e sinodi” in Medioevo Latino.

For more detailed listings and for councils of particular periods and regions, see J. Avril in Berlioz, Identifier sources, pp. 177-90.


Faith in Formulae: A Collection of Early Christian Creeds and Creed-related Texts, 4 vols., ed. Wolfram Kinzig (Oxford, 2017). 

Creeds & Confessions of Faith in the Christian Tradition, ed. Jaroslav Pelikan and Valerie Hotchkiss, 4 vols. and CD-ROM (New Haven, 2003).  See vol. 1: Rules of Faith in the Early Church. Eastern Orthodox Affirmations of Faith. Medieval Western Statements of Faith; vol. [4]: Credo: Historical and Theological Guide to Creeds and Confessions of Faith in the Christian Tradition. Includes bibliographies, indices of biblical citations and names of persons, a comparative “Syndogmaticon” with alphabetical index, and an ecclesiastical index of churches, creeds, confessions, and councils. The CD-ROM includes the Latin texts taken from standard editions (PL, Denzinger, etc.).

Eligius Dekkers, Clavis Patrum Latinorum, 3rd ed. (Steenbrugge, 1995), pp. 569-74. 

Heinrich Denzinger and Peter Hünermann, Enchiridion symbolorum definitionum et declarationum de rebus fidei et morum, 40th ed. (Freiburg i.B., 2005).

A. Hahn and G. Hahn, Bibliothek der Symbole und Glaubensregeln der alten Kirche, 3rd ed. (Breslau, 1897; rpt. 1962).

J. N. D. Kelly, Early Christian Creeds, 3rd ed. (New York, 1972).

A. E. Burn, An Introduction to the Creeds and the Te Deum (London, 1889). 

Wolfram KinzigNeue Texte und Studien zu den antiken und frühmittelalterlichen Glaubensbekenntnissen, Arbeiten zur Kirchengeschichte 132 (Berlin, 2017).

Wolfram Kinzig and M. Vincent, “Recent Research on the Origin of the Creed,” Journal of Theological Studies 50 (1999), 534-59. 

Wolfram Kinzig, “… natum et passum etc.’ Zur Geschichte der Tauffragen in der lateinischen Kirche bis zu Luther,” in Wolfram Kinzig, Christoph Markschies and Markus Vinzent, Tauffragen und Bekenntnis. Studien zur sogenannten Traditio apostolica, zu den Interrogationes de fide und zum Römischen Glaubensbekenntnis, Arbeiten zur Kirchengeschichte 74 (Berlin, 1998), pp. 75-183.

Bertrand-Georges Guyot, “Quelques aspects de la typologie du Commentaires sur le Credo et le Décalogue,” in Les genres littéraires dans les sources théologiques et philosophiques médiévales. Définition, critique et exploitation. Actes du Colloque international de Louvain-la-Neuve, 25-27 mai 1981 (Louvain, 1982), pp. 239-48.

Some Individual Creeds:

Liuwe H. Westra, The Apostle’s Creed: Origin, History, and Some Early Commentaries, Instrumenta Patristica 43 (Turnhout, 2002).

A. E. Burn, The Athanasian Creed and its Early Commentaries (Cambridge, 1896)

J. N. D. Kelly, The Athanasian Creed (New York, 1964).

J. Madoz, Le symbole du XIe concile de Toléde. Ses sources, sa date, sa valeur, Spicilegium sacrum Lovaniense, Études et Documents 19 (Louvain, 1938).

C.P. Caspari, Alte und neue Quellen zur Geschichte des Taufsymbols und der Glaubensregel (Christiana, 1879). 

C.P. Caspari, Ungedruckte, unbeachtete, und wenig beachtete Quellen zur Geschichte der Taufsymbols und der Glaubensregel, 2 vols. (Christiania, 1886). 

C.P. Caspari, Kirchenhistorische Anecdota, I. Lateinische Schriften (Christiania, 1883). 

See also sermons and homilies De symbolo, which can be located via the reference works cited below under Sermons and Homiliaries.

Commentaries on Creeds:

Nicholas M. Haring, “Commentaries on the Pseudo-Athanasian Creed,” Mediaeval Studies 34 (1972), 208-52.

Susan Keefe, A Catalogue of Works Pertaining to the Explanation of the Creed in Carolingian Manuscripts, Instrumenta Patristica 63 (Steenbrugge, 2012). 

Explanationes fidei aevi Carolini, ed. Susan Keefe, CCCM 254 (Turnhout, 2012). 

Susan Keefe, The Making of Christendom: Creed Commentaries and Explanations of the Faith in the Carolingian Empire. Unpublished translations of commentaries edited by Keefe in the previous item, intended for a companion volume that was never completed. The existing files are being made available on the Duke Divinity School Divinity Archive.


Robert A. L. Clarke, “Spiritual Exercises: The Making of Interior Faith,” in The Oxford Handbook of Medieval Christianity, ed. Arnold, pp. 270-86.  

The Culture of Devotion in the Later Middle Ages: A Bibliography, by Thomas Head.

Louis Gougaud, Devotional and Ascetic Practices in the Middle Ages, trans. G. G. Bateman (London, 1927).


Marina Gazzini, “Bibliografia medievistica di storia confraternale,” Reti Medievali Rivista 5 (2004/1)

Andrea Martignoni, “Les confreries au moyen âge” (bibliography).

G. G. Meersseman with Gian Piero Pacini, Ordo fraternitatis: confraternité e pietà dei laici nel Medioevo, 3 vols., Italia sacra 24-26 (Rome, 1977).

Marina Gazzini, “Confraternite religiose laiche”

Confraternitas: The Society for Confraternity Studies (online journal)

The Confraternities Collection at the Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies, Victoria College, Univ. of Toronto (.pdf file)


Marcus Bull, “Pilgrimage,” in The Oxford Handbook of Medieval Christianity, ed. Arnold, pp. 201-16. 

Linda Kay Davidson, Pilgrimage in the Middle Ages: A Research Guide (New York, 1993). 

Linda Kay Davidson and David M. Gitlitz, Pilgrimage: From the Ganges to Graceland: An Encyclopedia (Santa Barbara, 2002).

Maryjane Dunn and Linda Kay Davidson, The Pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela: A Comprehensive, Annotated Bibliography (New York, 1994). 

Jonathan Sumption, Pilgrimage: An Image of Mediaeval Religion (Totowa, NJ, 1975). Includes extensive bibliography (pp. 355-78).

Diana Webb, Pilgrims and Pilgrimages in the Medieval West (London, 1999).

Diana Webb, Medieval European Pilgrimage, c. 700-c.1500 (New York, 2002). 

Digitized Travel Accouns of Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe.. Includes a bibliographical database.

The Rosary:

Anne Winston-Allen, Stories of the Rose: The Making of the Rosary in the Middle Ages (University Park, 1997).


See the separate bibliography on Hagiography.

See also D. Townsend in Mantello and Rigg, Medieval Latin, pp. 618-28, and Berlioz, Identifier sources, pp. 191-200.

LITURGY (separate bibliography)


Nancy Mandeville Caciola, “Witchcraft,” Oxford Bibliographies.

Magical Practice in the Latin West, ed. Richard L. Gordon and Francisco Marco Simón (Leiden, 2010). 

Valerie I. J. Flint, The Rise of Magic in Early Medieval Europe (Princeton, 1996). 

Karen Jolly, Catharina Raudvere, and Edward Peters, Witchcraft and Magic in Europe, The Middle Ages, vol. 3 (London, 2001).

Richard Kieckhefer, Magic in the Middle Ages (Cambridge, 2000).

Jeffrey Burton Russell, A History of Witchcraft: Sorcerers, Heretics, and Pagans (New York, 1980).

Lynn Thorndike, A History of Magic and Experimental Science, 8 vols. (New York, 1934-58). Vols. 1-2: The First Thirteen Centuries of our Era.

Witchcraft in Europe, 400-1700: A Documentary History, ed. Alan Charles Kors, and Edward Peters, The Middle Ages Series (Philadelphia, 2000). 

Cornell University Witchcraft Collection


Lexikon zur Geschichte der Hexenverfolgung

Wolfgang Behringer, “Geschichte der Hexenforschung,” in Wider alle Hexerei und Teufelswerk: Die europþische Hexenverfolgung und ihre Auswirkungen auf Südwestdeutschland, ed. Sšnke Lorenz and Jürgen Michael Schmidt (Ostfildern 2004), pp. 485-668. 

Malleus Maleficarum


See also the separate bibliography on Hagiography: Martyrologies.

Candida Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (New Haven, 2012).

Daniel Boyarin, Dying for God: Martyrdom and the Making of Christianity and Judaism (Stanford, 1999).

L. Stephanie Cobb, Divine Deliverance: Pain and Painlessness in Early Christian Martyr Texts (Berkeley, 2017).

Elizabeth Anne Castelli, Martyrdom and Memory: Early Christian Culture Making (New York, 2004).

Lucy Grig, Making Martyrs in Late Antiquity (London, 2004).

G. W. Bowerstock, Martyrdom and Rome (Cambridge, 1995).

Hans von Campenhausen, Die Idee des Martyrium in der alten Kirche (Göttingen, 1964).

H. C. Frend, Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church: A Study of A Conflict from the Maccabees to Donatus (London, 1965).

G. E.  M. De Ste. Croix, Christian Persecution, Martyrdom, and Orthodoxy, ed. Michael Whitby and Joseph Streeter (Oxford, 2006).

Michael Gaddis, There is No Crime for Those Who Have Christ: Religious Violence in the Christian Roman Empire (Berkely, 2005).

Gail P. C. Streete, Redeemed Bodies: Women Martyrs in Early Christianity (Louisville KY, 2009).

More Than a Memory: The Discourse of Martyrdom and the Construction of Christian Identity in the History of Christianity, Johan Leemans and Jürgen Mettepenningen (Leuven, 2005).

Kenneth Baxter Wolf, Christian Martyrs in Muslim Spain (Cambridge, 1988).

Martyrs and Martyrologies, ed. Diana Wood, Studies in Church History 30 (Oxford, 1933).

Patricia Healy WasyliwMartyrdom, Murder, and Magic: Child Saints and Their Cults in Medieval Europe, Studies in Church History 2 (New York, 2008).

Danna Piroyansky, Martyrs in the Making: Political Martyrdom in Late Medieval England (New York, 2008).

Clare Stancliffe, “Red, White and Blue Martyrdom,” in Ireland in Early Medieval Europe: Studies in Memory of Kathleen Hughes, ed. David N. Dumville (Cambridge, 1982), pp. 21-45.

Acts, Passions, and Related Genres:

Jan Willem van Henten and F. Avemarie, Martyrdom and Noble Death: Selected Texts from Graeco-Roman, Jewish, and Christian Antiquity (London, 2002).

Atti e passioni dei martiri, ed. and trans. A. A. R. Bastiaensen et al. (Milan, 1987).

Greek and Latin Narratives about the Ancient Martyrs, ed. Eric Rebillard, Oxford Early Christian Texts (Oxford, 2017).

Michael Lapidge, The Roman Martyrs: Introduction, Translations, and Commentary, Oxford Early Christian Studies (Oxford, 2018).

Herbert Musurillo, The Acts of the Christian Martyrs (Oxford, 1972).

G. A. Bisbee, Pre-Decian Acts of Martyrs and Commentarii (Philadelphia, 1988).

Hippolyte Delehaye, Les passions des martyrs et les genres littéraires, 2nd ed. (Brussels, 1966).


André Grabar, Martyrium: Recherches sur le culte des reliques et l’art chrétien antique, 2 vols. (Paris, 1946).


Emil van der Vekene, Bibliotheca bibliographica historiae sanctae inquisitionis, 3 vols. (Vaduz, 1982-92).

Henry Ansgar Kelly, Inquisitions and Other Trial Procedures in the Medieval West (Aldershot, 2001).


Benedicta Ward, Miracles and the Medieval Mind: Theory, Record and Event, 1000–1215 (Philadelphia, 1987). 

Robert A. Scott, Miracles Cures: Saints, Pilgrimage, and the Healing Powers of Belief (Berkeley CA, 2010).  Includes an Appendix:  Accounts of Miracles at Medieval Shrines.

Graham H. Twelftree, The Cambridge Companion to Miracles (Cambridge, 2011). 

E. Cobham Brewer, Dictionary of Miracles: Imitative, Realistic, and Dogmatic (Philadelphia, 1884). 

Charles Grant Loomis, White Magic:  An Introduction to the Folklore of Christian Legend (Cambridge, MA, 1948). 

MYSTICISM (separate bibliography)


“Bibliographia Historiae Pontificae,” Archivum Historiae Pontificiae (1963- ).

Frances Parton, “Popes and Papacy,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies: Terms – Methods – Trends, ed. Classen, pp. 1122-29.

A Companion to the Medieval Papacy: Growth of an Ideology and Institution, ed. Keith Sisson and Atria A. Larson (Leiden, 2016).

The Papacy: An Encyclopedia, ed. Philippe Levillain, 3 vols. (New York, 2002). The best first stop.

The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, ed. J. N. D. Kelly (Oxford, 1986).  For quick reference.

The Great Popes Through History: An Encyclopedia, ed. Frank J. Coppa, 2 vols. (Westport CT, 2002).  Covers only fifteen early and medieval popes, but includes excellent select bibliography, not limited to works in English.

Gerhard B. Ladner, Die Papstbildnisse des Altertums und des Mittelalters, 3 vols. (Vatican City, 1941- ).

Archivum historiae pontificiae (Rome, 1963- ).  On-line index.

Päpste und Papsttum, gen. ed. Georg Denzler (Stuttgart, 1971- ). 

Le Liber pontificalis: texte, introduction et commentaire, 2 vols., ed. L. Duchesne (Paris, 1886-1892); Vol. 3: Additions et corrections de L. Duchesne, publiées par Cyrille Vogel, avec l’histoire du Liber pontificalis depuis l’édition de L. Duchesne, une bibliographie et des tables générales (Paris, 1955-57). 

The Book of Pontiffs (Liber Pontificalis), trans. Raymond Davis, 2nd ed. (Liverpool, 2000).  To Pope Constantine, 708-715. Contains an extensive and up to date bibliography.

The Lives of the Eighth Century Popes, trans. Raymond Davis (Liverpool, 1992). 715 to 817. 

The Lives of the Ninth Century Popes, trans. Raymond Davis (Liverpool, 1989). 817 to 891. 

Papal Documents and the Vatican Archives:

The Vatican Library, Secret Archives

Francis X. Blouin, Vatican Archives: An Inventory and Guide to Historical Documents of the Holy See (Oxford, 1998).

Papal Documents: A Finding Aid

Pius-Stiftung für Papsturkundenforschung Includes list of volumes in the Göttingen Papsturkunden des frühen und hohen Mittelalters series published in the Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen ().

Leonard E. Boyle, A Survey of the Vatican Archives and of its Medieval Holdings, rev. ed. (Toronto, 2001).  Includes a General Bibliography, with addenda in the rev. ed.

Papstgeschichte im digitalen Zeitalter: Neue Zugangsweisen zu einer Kulturgeschichte Europas, ed. Klaus Herbert and Viktoria Trenkle, Beihefte zum Archiv für Kulturgeschichte 85 (Cologne, 2018).

C. R. Cheney, The Study of the Medieval Papal Chancery (Glasgow, 1966). 

Materialien zur Apostolischen Kanzlei (Thomas Frenz)

Lexikon der Papstdiplomatik (Thomas Frenz)

Herwig Weigl, “Papal Bulls,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies: Terms – Methods – Trends, ed. Classen, pp. 1963-68.

Rudolf Hiestand, “100 Jahre Papsturkundenwerk,” in 100 Jahre Papsturkundenforschung. Bilanz – Methoden – Perspektiven, ed. Hiestand, Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Gšttingen, Philologisch-Historische Klasse, Dritte Folge, 261 (Gšttingen 2003), pp. 11-46.

Thomas Frenz, Papsturkunden des Mittelalters und der Neuzeit, 2nd ed. (Stuttgart, 2000).  Ergänzungen.

Phillip Jaffé, Regesta pontificum romanorum: ab condita ecclesia ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII (Berlin, 1885-88).

August Potthast, Regesta pontificum romanorum inde ab a. post Christum natum MCXCVIII ad a. MCCCIV (Berlin, 1874-75).

Hans-Martin Schaller, Initienverzeichnis zu August Potthast, Regesta pontificum Romanorum (1198-1304), Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Hilfsmittel 2 (Munich, 1978).

Italia pontificia, sive, Repertorium privilegiorum et litterarum a Romanis pontificibus ante annum MCLXXXXVIII Italiae ecclesiis monasteriis civitatibus singulisque personis concessorum, 10 vols., ed. P. F. Kehr (Berlin, 1906-75). 

Rudolf Hiestand, Initien- und Empfängerverzeichnis zu Italia pontificia I-X, MGH Hilfsmittel 6 (Munich, 1983).

Calendar of Entries in the Papal Registers Relating to Great Britain and Ireland: Papal Letters, 1198–1521, ed. W. H. Bliss et al., 20 vols. (London, 1893–2005). 

Rudolf Hiestand, Initien- und Empfangerverzeichnis zu Italia pontifica I-IX, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Hilfsmittel 6 (Munich, 1983).

Rudolf Hiestand, Initienverzeichnis und chronologisches Verzeichnis zu den Archivberichten und Vorarbeiten der Regesta pontificum Romanorum, Monumenta Germaniae Historisch, Hilfsmittel 7 (Munich, 1983).

Harald Zimmermann, Papsturkunden 896-1046, 3 vols. Denkschriften der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 174, 177, 198 (Vienna, 1984-89).

Jane E. Sayers, Original Papal Documents in England and Wales from the Accession of Pope Innocent III to the Death of Pope Benedict XI (1198-1304) (Oxford, 1999). 

La documentation pontificia de Gregorio IX (1227-1241), 2 vols., ed. Eliseo Sáinz Ripa, Monumenta Hispaniae Vaticana, Registros 11 (Rome, 2001). 

Papal Letters:

Vetustissimae epistulae Romanorum pontificum: Die ältesten Papstbriefe, 3 vols., ed. Hermann-Josef Sieben, Fontes Christiani 58/1-3 (Freiburg, 2014-15). 

Detlev Jasper and Horst Fuhrmann, Papal Letters in the Early Middle Ages (Washington D.C., 2001).

Ut per litteras apostolicas … Les lettres des papes des XIIIe et XIVe siècles (Turnhout, 2012). Brepolis database. 



My-Parish.  Extensive resources and bibliography on medieval parishes.

Jean Coste, “L’institution paroissiale à la fin du Moyen Age: approche bibliographique,” Mélanges de l’Ecole Française de Rome: Moyen Age, 96 (1984), 295-326. 

La parrocchia nel medio evo: Economia, scambi, solidarietà, ed. A. Paravicini Bagliani and Véronique Pasche (Rome, 1995). 

Le istituzioni ecclesiastiche della “Societas christiana” dei secoli XI – XII: Diocesi, pievi et parrocchie. Atti della sesta Settimana internazionale di studio, Milano, 1-7 settembre 1974 (Milan, 1977).

Pievi e parrocchie in Italia nel basso medioevo (sec. XIII-XV), 2 vols. (Rome, 1984). 

L’encadrement religieux des fidèles au Moyen Age et jusqu’au Concile de Trente (Paris, 1985). 

Beat Kümin, The Shaping of a Community: The Rise and Reformation of the English Parish c. 1400-1560 (Aldershot, 1996). 

The Parish in English Life 1400-1600, ed. K. French, G. Gibbs and B. Kümin (Manchester, 1997). 

The Parish in Late Medieval England, ed. Clive Burgess and Eamon Duffy (Donnington, UK, 2006). 

Warwick Network for Parish Research. Includes a select bibliography on parish research.

B. Cowan, The Parishes of Medieval Scotland (Edinburgh, 1967). 

A Corpus of Scottish Medieval Parish Churches

The Parish in Medieval and Early Modern Ireland: Community, Territory and Building, ed. Elizabeth FitzPatrick and Raymond Gillespie (Dublin, 2006). 


L’espace du diocèse. Genèse d’un territoire dans l’Occident médiévale (Ve-XIIIe siècle), ed. Florian Mazel (Rennes, 2008).


A Companion to Pastoral Care in the Late Middle Ages (1200-1500), ed. Ronald J. Stansbury (Leiden, 2010). 

A History of Pastoral Care, ed. G. R. Evans (New York, 2000). 

Carine van Rhijn, “The Local Church, Priests’ Handbooks and Pastoral Care in the Carolingian Period,” in Chiesi locali e chiesi regionale nell’alto medioevo, Settimane di studio della Fondazione centro Italiano di studi sull’alto medioevo 61 (Spoleto, 2014), pp. 689-706.

Pierre Michaud-Quantin, Sommes de casuistique et manuels de confession au moyen âge (XII-XVI siecle), Analecta Mediaevalia Namurcensia 13 (Louvain, 1962).

Leonard Boyle, “Summae Confessorum,” in Les genres littéraires dans les sources théologiques et philosophiques médiévales (Louvain-Ia-Neuve, 1982), pp. 227-37.

Bert Roest, Franciscan Literature of Religious Instruction before the Council of Trent, Studies in the History of Christian Tradition 117 (Leiden, 2004).

Pastoral Care in Medieval England: Interdisciplinary Approaches, ed. Peter G. Clarke and Sarah James (Farnham, 2015). 

William Campbell, The Landscape of Pastoral Care in 13th-Century England (Cambridge, 2017).

Beth Allison Barr, The Pastoral Care of Women in Late Medieval England (Woodbridge, 2008).


Surveys of Scholarship:

Michelle M. Sauer, “Penitentials and Confessionals,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies: Terms – Methods – Trends, ed. Classen, pp. 1968-79.

Individual Scholars:

Ludger Körntgen

Raymund Kottje: “Schriftenverzeichnis Raymund Kottje 1950-1991,” Aus Archiven und Bibliotheken. Festschrift für Raymund Kottje zum 65. Geburtstag, ed. Hubert Mordek, Freiburger Beiträge zur mittelalterlichen Geschichte 3 (Frankfurt am Main, 1992), pp. 617-30.

Rob Meens


Cyrille Vogel, “Les ‘Libri paenitentiales’, Typologie des sources du Moyen Âge médiévale 27 (Turnhout, 1978).  With a Mise à jour by Allen Frantzen (Turnhout, 1985).

Histories and Surveys:

Rob Meens, “Remedies for Sins,” in The Cambridge History of Christianity, vol. 3, pp. 399-415. 

Rob Meens, “Penitential Varieties,” in The Oxford Handbook of Medieval Christianity, ed. Arnold, pp. 254-70. 

Rob Meens, Penance in Medieval Europe, 600-1200 (Cambridge, 2014). 

Natalie Brigit Molineaux, Medici et medicamenta: The Medicine of Penance in Late Antiquity (Lanham MD, 2009).

Cyrille Vogel, Le pécheur et la pénitence au Moyen Âge (Paris, 1969).

Sarah Hamilton, The Practice of Penance, 900-1050 (Cambridge, 2001).

Collective Editions/Translations:

Corpus Christianorum Series Latina 156: Paenitentialia (Turnhout, 1994- ). 156: Paenitentialia Franciae et Italiae saeculi VIII-XI. Paenitentalia minora Franciae et Italiae saeculi VIII-IX, ed. Raymund Kottje, Ludger Körntgen, and U. Spengler-Reffgen (1994); 156A: Paenitentialia Hispaniae, ed. F. Bezler (1998); 156B: Paenitentiale pseudo-Theodori, ed. C. van Rhijn (2009); 156C: Paenitentialia Italiae saeculi XI-XII, ed. A. H. Gaastra (2016).

J. Schmitz, Die Bussbücher und die Bussdisciplin der Kirche: nach handscriftlichen Quellen dargestellt (Graz, 1958).

F. W. H. Wasserschleben, Die Bussordnungen der abendländischen Kirche (Halle, 1851).

Anglo-Saxon Penitentials: A Cultural Database

John T. McNeill and Helena M. GamerMedieval Handbooks of Penance: A Translation of the Principal “libri poenitentiales” and Selections from Related Documents (1938).

For a more complete list of editions of penitentials, see:

Michael Elliott, Anglo-Saxon Canon Law: Editions: Penitentials

Collections of Essays:

Multiple Authors:

A New History of Penance, ed. Abigail Firey, Brill’s Companions to the Christian Tradition 14 (Leiden, 2008).

Early Medieval Europe 14.1 (2006). [Special issue on penitence and penitentials.]

Single Authors:

Cyrille Vogel, En rémission des péchés: Recherches sur les systèmes pénitentiels dans l’église latine, ed. Alexandre Faivre, Variorum Collected Studies (Aldershot, 1994). 


Ludger Körtngen, Studien zu den Quellen der frühmittelalterlichen Bußbücher, Quellen und Forschungen zum Recht im Mittelalter 7 (Sigmaringen, 1993).

Raymund Kottje, “Erfassung und Untersuchung der frümittelalterlichen kontinentalen Bussbücher. Probleme, Aufgaben eines Forschungsprojektes an der Universität Bonn,” Studi medievali 3rd ser. 26 (1985), 941-50.

Raymund Kottje, “Bussbücher in mittelalterlichen Bücherverzeichnissen,” Sacris Erudiri 45 (2006), 305-26.

Rob MeensHet tripartite boeteboek. Overlevering en betekenis van vroegmiddeleeuwse biechtvoorschriften (met editie en vertaling van vier ‘tripartita’) (Hilversum 1994)

F. B. AsbachDas Poenitentiale Remense und der sogen. Excarpsus Cummeani (Regensburg, 1975)

Karen Wagner, “Cum aliquis venerit ad sacerdotem: Penitential Experience in the Central Middle Ages,”

A. H. Gaastra, “Between Liturgy and Canon Law. A Study of Books of Confession and Penance in Eleventh- and Twelfth-century Italy” (unpubl. PhD diss., Utrecht University, 2007).

Arrai A. Larson, Master of Penance: Gratian and the Development of Penitential Thought in the Twelfth Century, Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Canon Law 11 (Washington, D.C., 2014).


Property and Power in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Wendy Davies and Paul Fouracre (Cambridge, 2002).   See esp. David Ganz, “The Ideology of Sharing: Apostolic Community and Ecclesiastical Property in the Early Middle Ages,” pp. 1-30.

David Herlihy, “Church Property on the European Continent, 701-1200,” Speculum 36 (1961), 81-105. 

Rosemary Morris, “The Problems of Property,” in The Cambridge History of Christianity, vol. 3, pp. 327-44. 

Emile Lesne, Histoire de la propriété ecclésiastique en France, vol. 3, L’inventaire de la propriété. Eglises et trésors des églises du commencement du VIIIe à la fin du XIe siècle (Lille, 1936). 

For inventories of church property see:

Bernhard Bischoff, Mittelalterliche Schatzverzeichnisse: Teil I: Von der Zeit Karls des Groβen bis zur Mitte des 13. Jahrhunderts (Munich). 

Joseph Salvatore Ackley, “Re-approaching the Western Medieval Church Treasury Inventory, c. 800-1250,” Journal of Art Historiography, No. 11 (December 2014), 1-37. 

Manfred Groten, “Schatzverzeichnisse des Mittelalters,” in Ornamenta Ecclesiae: Kunst und Künstler der Romanik, ed. Anton Legner, 2 vols. (Cologne, 1985), vol. 2, 149-54. 

For liturgical implements see:

Joseph Braun, Das christliche Altargerät in seinem Sein und in seiner Entwicklung (Munich, 1932). 

For books see the separate bibliography on Medieval and Modern Library Catalogues.


Gerhart Ladner, The Idea of Reform: Its Impact on Christian Thought and Action in the Age of the Fathers (Cambridge, MA 1959). 

Reassessing Reform:  A Historical Investigation into Church Renewal, ed. Christopher M. Bellitto (Washington, D.C., 2012). 

Giles Constable, “Renewal and Reform in Religious Life: Concepts and Realities,” in Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century, ed. Robert Louis Benson et al. (Cambridge, MA, 1982), pp. 37-67. 

Reform and Renewal in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance: Studies in Honor of Louis Pascoe, S.J., ed. Thomas M. Izbicki and Christopher M. Bellitto (Leiden, 1999). 

Julia Barrow, “Ideas and Applications of Reform, in The Cambridge History of Christianity, vol. 3, pp. 345-62.

Maureen C. Miller, “Reform, Clerical Culture and Politics,” in The Oxford Handbook of Medieval Christianity, ed. Arnold, pp. 304-22. 

Maureen C. Miller, “New Religious Movements and Reform,” in A Companion to the Medieval World, ed. Carol Lansing and Edward D. English (Malden MA, 2013), pp. 211-30. 

“Part IV: Reform and Renewal,” in The Cambridge History of Christianity, vol. 4. 

A Companion to Observant Reform in the Late Middle Ages and Beyond, ed. James Mixson and Bert Roest (Leiden, 2015). 

Bibliography on reforms associated with particular periods (the twelfth-century) or persons (Charlemagne, Gregory VII) or institutions (Cluniac) can be located in the general bibliographies and reference works cited in section I.

SCHOLASTICISM (see separate bibliography on Theology)

SERMONS AND HOMILIES (separate bibliography)


Charles D. Wright

last updated 12/18