General Bibliographies, Reference Works, and Internet Resources

I.  Bibliographies

II.  Encyclopedias and Dictionaries

III.  Catalogues

IV.  Other Reference Works

V.  Introductions, Guides, and Handbooks

VI.  Collections of Essays

VII.  Series

VIII.  Journals

IX.  Websites

X.  Search Engines; Databases and Indices of Scholarly Literature

XI.  Digital Libraries

XII.  Translations of Medieval Texts in English and Other Modern Languages

About these bibliographies

Note: Bibliographies and reference works specifically devoted to medieval history are listed in the separate bibliographies on Medieval History and Historical Sources and Medieval Christianity and Ecclesiastical Sources. See also the bibliography on Medieval Latin Literature. Most topical bibliographies, except for those in the bibliographical series itemized below, are listed in the appropriate separate specialized bibliographies.

I.  Bibliographies 


Everett U. Crosby, Charles Julian Bishko, and Robert L. Kellogg, Medieval Studies: A Bibliographical Guide (New York, 1983).  Now dated and limited to print resources, but still the most comprehensive in scope, covering virtually all major subject areas and ancillary disciplines (main headings listed in WorldCat entry); briefly annotated.

Oxford Bibliographies Online: Medieval Studies, gen. ed. Paul Szarmach. In progress. Topical, briefly annotated bibliographies by specialists, supplied with links to public or subscriber library online access. Currently (2019) includes more than 250 bibliographies, from “Alfred the Great” to “York, Medieval.” The bibliographies lean heavily towards English-language scholarship but do include references to scholarship in other major research languages. One of a suite of Oxford Bibliographies, which inculdes others of relevance to Medieval Studies (notably Biblical Studies, ClassicsIslamic Studies, Jewish Studies). In Advanced Search you can limit searches to Medieval Studies bibliographies and/or other areas.

Archives de littérature du Moyen Âge (ARLIMA). ARLIMA “se propose ainsi de fournir une couverture bibliographique aussi complète que possible sur un grand nombre d’auteurs et de textes du Moyen Âge, principalement de langues française et latine sans pour cela exclure les autres langues d’Europe occidentale.” In addition to free searches of the bibliographical database, it can be browsed alphabetically by authors and works; by patrons and dedicatees; by themes and genres; and by manuscripts.

Online Medieval Source Bibliography: An Annotated Bibliography of Printed and Online Primary Sources for the Middle Ages. Searchable database (by Medieval Text Name, Medieval Author, or Modern Editor/Translator), currently focusing primarily on sources from England, Ireland, and France. “The aim is to provide annotated entries that include information on the genre, contents, archival reference and original language of the text, as well as whether the publication includes a translation, introduction, appendices, glossary, and index. Where appropriate, the bibliography also includes hyperlinks to sources that are online.”

For online bibliographies of internet resources, see Search Engines and Indices of Scholarly Literature.


Toronto Medieval Bibliographies (Toronto, 1967-88): 1. Hans Bekker-Nielsen, Old Norse-Icelandic Studies: A Select Bibliography (1967) ; 2. Fred C. Robinson, Old English Literature: A Select Bibliography (1970) ; 3. James J. Murphy, Medieval Rhetoric: A Select Bibliography, 2nd ed. (1989) ; 4. Andrew Hughes, Medieval Music, 2nd ed. (1980) ; 5. Rachel Bromwich, Medieval Celtic Literature: A Select Bibliography (1974) ; 6. Giles Constable and John LeyerleMedieval Monasticism: A Select Bibliography (1976) ; 7. Robert A. Taylor, La Littérature occitane: Bibliographie Sélective et Critique (1977) ; 8. Leonard E. Boyle, Medieval Latin Palaeography (1984) ; 9. Richard W. Pfaff, Medieval Latin Liturgy: A Select Bibliography (1982) ; 10. John Leyerle and Anne W. Quick, Chaucer, A Bibliographical Introduction (1986) ; 11. R. E. Kaske, in collaboration with Arthur Groos and Michael W. TwomeyMedieval Christian Literary Imagery: A Guide to Interpretation (1988) .

Garland Medieval Bibliographies (New York, 1990-2000) . 2. Sidney E. Berger, Medieval English Drama: A Bibliography of Recent Criticism (1989) ; 3. Robert D. PeckhamFrançois Villon: A Bibliography (1990) ; 4. Margaret Louise Switton, Music and Literature in the Middle Ages: An Annotated Bibliography (1990); 5. Joyce E. Salisbury, Medieval Sexuality: A Research Guide (1990); 6. Nadia Margolis, Joan of Arc in History, Literature, and Film: A Select, Annotated Bibliography (1990); 7. Noel Harold KaylorThe Medieval Consolation of Philosophy: An Annotated Bibliography (1992); 8. Heather Arden, The Roman de la Rose: An Annotated Bibliography (1993); 9. Joseph P. ConsoliGiovanni Boccaccio: An Annotated Bibliography (1992); 11. Eileen Gardiner, Medieval Visions of Heaven and Hell: A Sourcebook (1993); 13. Meg Stainsby, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight: An Annotated Bibliography, 1978-1989 (1992); 14. Robert J. Hasenfratz and Douglas D. ShortBeowulf Scholarship: An Annotated Bibliography, 1979-1990 (1993); 15. Susan E. FarrierThe Medieval Charlemagne Legend: An Annotated Bibliography (1993); 16. Linda Kay Davidson and Maryjane Dunn-WoodPilgrimage in the Middle Ages: A Research Guide (1993); 17. Eglal Doss-QuinbyThe Lyrics of the Trouvères: A Research Guide (1970-1990) (1994); 18. Maryjane Dunn and Linda Kay Davidson, The Pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela: A Comprehensive, Annotated Bibliography (1994); 19. Margaret Louise Switten, Music and Poetry in the Middle Ages: A Guide to Research on French and Occitan Song, 1100-1400 (1995); 20. John Block Friedman and Jessica M. Wegmann, Medieval Iconography: A Research Guide (1999); 21. Everett Uberto Crosby, Medieval Warfare: A Bibliographical Guide (2000); 24. Albrecht Classen,The Book and the Magic of Reading in the Middle Ages (2012).

Some additional medieval bibliographies in the series Garland Reference Library in the Humanities: Claudia Kren, Medieval Science and Technology: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography (1985); Chris D. Ferguson, Europe in Transition: A Select, Annotated Bibliography of the Twelfth-Century Renaissance (1989); John A. Alford and Dennis P. Seniff, Literature and Law in the Middle Ages: A Bibliography of Scholarship (1984); J. Paul McRoberts, Shakespeare and the Medieval Tradition: An Annotated Bibliography (1985).

 James W. MarchandWhat Every Medievalist Should Know (WEMSK). 49 topical bibliographies; see the alphabetical list. Includes surveys and histories as well as bibliographies and reference works. The bibliographies date to the 1990s and have not been updated.

Questes: Bibliographies. 32 topical bibliographies.

Richard J. Utz, “Medievalism — An Introductory Bibliography.”


Barbara L. Bell, An Annotated Guide to Current National Bibliographies, 2nd ed. (Alexandria VA, 1998).

European Historical Bibliographies

For other national bibliographies consult the section “storia dei regni e delle entità politiche territoriali” in Medioevo Latino. For many European nations there are volumes in the series Historical Dictionaries of Europe. See also the separate bibliography on Medieval History and Historical Sources.


Richard H. Rouse, Serial Bibliographies for Medieval Studies (Berkeley CA, 1969)

Medioevo Latino. Bollettino bibliografico della cultura europea dal secolo VI al XIII, gen. ed. Claudio Leonardi (Spoleto, 1980- ).  Comprehensive coverage (of periodical literature and of books reviewed in periodicals) of medieval Latin authors and texts other than archival documents and related aspects of medieval culture (therefore excluding works dealing with vernacular texts unless treating of Latin sources or connections [cf. the section “Rapporti con le culture non latine”] and non-textual subjects such as daily life, archaeology and material culture, and art history (but iconography is covered) or music (but Latin treatises on music will be covered under “autori e testi”). Each entry has an abstract (usually in Italian, but sometimes in German, French, or English). Divided into five major parts: 1. Authors and texts, listed alphabetically; 2. “Fortleben,” on the transmission and influence of the Bible (by book) and of classical and patristic authors in the Middle Ages; 3. Medieval intellectual, literary, and institutional history; 4. Reference works; 5. Miscellaneous collections of essays. 6. Manuscripts from catalogues (alphabetical list of Latin texts indexed in recently published manuscript catalogues; this section will be merged with section 1 beginning with volume 24). Beginning with vol. 23 of the print bibliography there is a new section covering Ancillary disciplines. There are indices of manuscripts (listing the contents from published catalogues), Latin words, localities, modern scholars, subject headings (Sezione), and CD-ROMs and websites. The section “Bibliografie” in Part 5 is the best way to locate the most recent bibliographical manuals. Included in the database Mirabile: (see under Databases).

Bibliographie annuelle du moyen âge tardif. Auteurs et textes latins, vers 1250-1500, ed. J. P. Rothschild (Paris, 1991- ). Picks up chronologically where Medioevo Latino leaves off.

Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters (1937- ).  The subject index can be searched at the Monumenta Germaniae Historica website; the reviews can be searched via the MGH OPAC database.

Older serial bibliographies, now largely superseded: 

Progress of Medieval and Renaissance Studies in the United States and Canada (1923-60).

International Guide to Medieval Studies: A Quarterly Index to Periodical Literature (1961/62-72/73).

Quarterly Checklist of Medievalia: International Index of Current Books, Monographs, Brochures, and Separates (1958-78).


Brepolis Medieval Bibliographies. Combines two complementary serial bibliographies: International Medieval Bibliography [IMB] (Leeds, 1967- ) , covering periodical literature, and Bibliographie de civilisation médiévale (1958- ) , covering monographs and miscellanies as well as book reviews. The Help page has a section “How to search?”  Includes Simple and Advanced search modes. Under Advanced Search “Thematic Search – Specific” you can also select “more search possibilities” to open up search fields for “Manuscripts,” “Persons, Families, Texts” and “Places.” Topical bibliographies can be found by entering “bibliography” in “Thematic Search – Specific: All index terms ” and selecting the relevant disciplines in “Thematic Search – General”. (In some cases the pull-down menu invoked by entering a term in the “Thematic Search – Specific: All index terms” box will include a selection for “Bibliography”).

Iter: The Bibliography of Medieval and Renaissance Europe from 400-1700. “Iter’s bibliography includes literature pertaining to the Middle Ages and Renaissance (400-1700). Citations for books, journal material (articles, reviews, review articles, bibliographies, catalogues, abstracts and discographies) are included, as are citations for essays in books (including entries in conference proceedings, festschriften, encyclopedias and exhibition catalogues).” The Iter databases also include Aestimatio, on the history of science, Baptisteria sacra, on baptismal fonts, Kristeller’s Iter Italicum, the International Directory of Scholars, as well as several databases on Renaissance topics.

On Iter and IMB see Daniel Newton and Jennalyn Tellman, “A Comparison of the Iter Bibliography and the International Medieval Bibliography: Tools for Researching the History of the European Middle Ages,” Reference & User Services Quarterly 49 (2010), 265-77.

Mirabile: Digital Archives for Medieval Latin Culture. Allows full text, simple and and advanced searches. Hits are grouped by database (below). Each record will usually supply an abstract and one or more fields linking to reviews and citations; subjects and indices; manuscripts; and external resources. The tutorial page gives a number of sample searches.

Mirabile incorporates the following databases:

Medieval Latin:
Romance Languages:
  • LIO – «Lirica italiana delle origini»
  • BAI – «Biblioteca agiografica italiana»
  • MAFRA – «Repertorio dei manoscritti gallo-romanzi copiati in Italia»
  • TECOLM – «Testi e codici della Lombardia medievale»
  • TRALIRO – «Repertorio ipertestuale della tradizione lirica romanza delle Origini»
  • MATER – «Manoscritti agiografici di Trento e Rovereto»
  • MAGIS – «Manoscritti agiografici dell’Italia del Sud»
  • BAI – «Biblioteca agiografica italiana» (consultabile anche tra i DB italiani)
  • MAGI – «Manoscritti agiografici latini nei codici della Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana»

FRANTIQ. Fédération et ressources sur l’Antiquité. Coverage extends to the year 1000.

Modern Language Association Bibliography. Coverage excludes “works exclusively on classical Greek or Latin literature, on religious texts such as the Bible or the Koran (unless as they relate to other literature or language topics within the scope of the bibliography)…” Topically the focus is on literature, linguistics, drama, folklore, and history of printing. See also Modern Language Association Bibliography with Full Text (EBSCO)

Pascal and Francis Bibliographical Databases (CNRS). Humanities and Social Sciences databases. In addition to Simple and Advanced search modes, allows searching by Vocabulary (particularly valuable) and Classification.

Bibliographies of Individual Scholars:

Répertoire international des médiévistes/International Directory of Medievalists, 8th ed. (Turnhout, 1995)

“Key Figures in Medieval Studies,” in Handbook of Medieval Studies, ed. Classen, vol. 3.

Medieval Scholarship: Biographical Studies on the Formation of a Discipline, 3 vols., ed. Helen Damico and Joseph B. Zavadil (New York, 1995-98).

Women Medievalists and the Academy, ed. Jane Chance (Madison WI, 2005). 

Variorum Collected Studies (Routledge). Hundreds of volumes of reprinted essays by individual medievalist scholars., Medieval Studies. Thousands of sites with pdfs of essays by individual scholars which can be searched by name or topic. One can “follow” individual scholars or topics (such as “Medieval Studies”).

See also the section “Raccolte di lavori personali” in Medioevo Latino. In LOC subject headings see “Medievalists” and “Middle Ages–Historiography.”

Surveys of Scholarship:

The State of Medieval Studies, ed. C. Stephen Jaeger, special issue of the Journal of English and Germanic Philology 105 (2006). Can be accessed online via subscription to JSTOR or Project Muse. Includes essays on Nationalism and Globilization, Byzantine Studies, Eurasia and the Realm of Islam, Spanish Medieval Studies, Early Medieval English Literature, Medieval Studies in the United Kingdom, Middle English Literature and Illustrated Illustrated Manuscripts, Occitan and French Literature, France at the Threshold, Art and Liturgy in the Middle Ages, Medieval German Literature, The Middle Ages in Germany, Medieval Studies in Italy, Medieval Italian Literature.

Hans-Werner Goetz, Moderne Mediävistik: Stand und Perspektiven der Mittelalterforschung (Darmstadt, 1999).  A critical survey of major developments; includes sections devoted to disciplinary and institutional history of medieval studies, ancillary disciplines and source studies, political and administrative history, social and economic history, anthropological approaches, and literacy/orality. Use the subject index to locate discussions of particular fields.

Bilan et perspectives des études médiévales en Europe: Actes du premier Congrès européen d’études médiévales, Spoleto, 27-29 mai 1993, Jacqueline Hamesse, Textes et études du moyen âge 3 (Louvain-la-Neuve, 1995).  

Hans Rudolf Guggisberg, Das europäische Mittelalter im amerikanischen Geschichtsdenken des 19. und des frühen 20. Jahrhunderts, Basler Beiträge zur Geschichtswissenschaft 92 (Basel, 1964).

Browsing the book reviews and “Books Received” section in each issue of the journal Speculum (via JSTOR) is a good way to keep abreast of recent monographs across the field. See also the separate bibliographies on Medieval History and Historical Sources and Medieval Christianity and Ecclesiastical Sources.

II.  Encyclopedias and Dictionaries

Dictionary of the Middle Ages, ed. Joseph R. Strayer, 13 vols. and Index (New York, 1982-89), with a Supplement (2004- ), ed. William Chester Jordan.  An excellent first stop for nearly any topic, though not as comprehensive or detailed as the following item.

Lexikon des Mittelalters, 9 vols. and Registerband (Munich, 1977-99) . Online version (2019) includes a complementary International Encyclopaedia for the Middle Ages-Online. LME is more detailed and with fuller bibliography than DMA. Volume 9 includes detailed lists of geneologies, rulers, and pope. The Register volume has an index of entries by broad geographical/linguistic regions, and an index of main cross-references, but no full subject index.

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, 2 vols., ed. André Vauchez with Barrie Dobson and Michael Lapidge, trans. Adrian Walford (Chicago, 2000); online version 2005).  Excellent resource; illustrated, with select bibliography.

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages, 4 vols., ed. Robert E. Bjork (Oxford, 2010). Concise, up-to-date entries with basic bibliography. 

Brill’s Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, ed. Gert Melville and Martial Staub, English ed. Francis G. Gentry and Tim Barnwell, trans. Michael Chase et al. 2 vols. (Leiden, 2016). Table of Contents. English version of Enzyklopädie des Mittelalters, 2 vols., ed. Gert Melville and Martial Staub (Darmstadt, 2008).  Complete Table of Contents.

Dictionnaire du Moyen Âge, ed. Claude Gauvard et al. (Paris, 2002).  Extensive coverage, with longer entries and more bibliographical references than the other one-volume dictionaries listed below. Includes an alphabetical and topical lists of headwords and an index.

Biographical Archive of the Middle Ages [microfiche] (Munich, 2009). Available as online database within World Biographical Information System Online (De Gruyter). For an index with summaries to its contents see following item.

Biographical Index of the Middle Ages, comp. Berend Wispelwey, 2 vols. (Munich, 2008).

Dictionary of World Biography, vol. 2: The Middle Ages, ed. Frank Northen Magill (London, 1998).

Routledge Encyclopedias of the Middle Ages (New York, 1993-2006). 1. Medieval Scandinavia: An Encyclopedia, ed. Phillip Pulsiano and Kirsten Wolf; 2. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, ed. William W. Kibler et al.; 3. Medieval England: An Encyclopedia, ed. Paul E. Szarmach, M. Teresa Tavormina, and Joel T. Rosenthal; 4. Trade, Travel and Exploration in the Middle Ages: An Encyclopedia, ed. John Block Friedman and Kristen Mossler Figg; 5. Medieval Archaeology, ed. Pam J. Crabtree; 6. Medieval Germany: An Encyclopedia, ed. John M. Jeep; 7. Medieval Jewish Civilization: An Encyclopedia, ed. Norman Roth; 8. Medieval Iberia: An Encyclopedia, ed. E. Michael Gerli; 9-10. Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia, 2 vols., ed. Christopher Kleinhenz; 11. Medieval Science, Technology and Medicine: An Encyclopedia, ed. Thomas F. Glick, Steven Livesey, and Faith Wallis; 12. Medieval Ireland: An Encyclopedia, ed. Seán Duffy; 13. Key Figures in Medieval Europe: An Encyclopedia, ed. Richard K. Emmerson; 14. Women and Gender in Medieval Europe: An Encyclopedia, ed. Margaret Schaus; 15-16. Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, 2 vols., ed. Josef W. Meri.

Dictionary of Medieval Names from European Sources

Dictionaries of terms and/or concepts:

Christopher Corèdon and Ann Williams, A Dictionary of Medieval Terms and Phrases (Cambridge, 2004). 

Renate Neumüllers-Klauser, Res Medii Aevi: Kleines Lexikon der Mittelalterkunde (Wiesbaden, 1999).  Dictionary of things medieval (excluding persons); similar to next item. Includes a list of “Allgemeine bibliographische Hilfsmittel, Lexika, Zeitschriften” (pp. 287-300). The subject index includes not only headwords but also subjects mentioned within the entries.

Peter Dinzelbacher, Sachwörterbuch der Mediävistik (Stuttgart, 1992).  Short entries, many with select bibliography, on a comprehensive range of subjects; excludes persons, but there is an index of authors and titles of anonymous works mentioned in the entries.

François-Olivier Touati, Vocabulaire historique du Moyen Age: Occident, Byzance, Islam, 3rd ed. (Paris, 2000).

Peter C. A. Schels, Kleine Enzyklopädie des deutschen Mittelalters

Hypertext Medieval Glossary (NetSERF). Spotty, but gives references to secondary sources and cross-references to related terms.

CIVICIMA: Etudes sur le vocabulaire intellectuel du Moyen Âge, gen. ed. Olga Weijers (Brepols).

III.  Catalogues


See the separate bibliography on Medieval and Modern Manuscript Catalogues and Digitized Manuscripts.


WorldCat. OCLC union catalogue of world libraries. See Searching WorldCat Indexes and Index Labels and Sample Searches. Print resources in these online Medieval Studies bibliographies are tagged with direct links to the WorldCat entries.

Library of Congress. LOC subject headings files (see especially the letter M for subject headings under “Medieval” and “Middle Ages”).

National Union Catalog, Pre-1956 Imprints: A Cumulative Author List Representing Library of Congress Printed Cards and Titles Reported by Other American Libraries.

The European Library

europeana and europeana pro. Meta-aggregator of digital resources from European libraries, museums, and other heritage institutions.

European Library Catalogues

Karlsruhe Virtual Catalog KVK. Allows combined searches of major online European national library and union catalogues.

Archives Portal Europe

Michael Culture Association and Michael Multilingual Inventory of Cultural Heritage in Europe

SUDOC: catalogue du Système Universitaire de Documentation. Union catalogue of research institutions in France.

Catalogue collectif de France

Library Hub Discover. Union catalogue of British Library and about 90 UK and Irish research libraries.

Individual Libraries:

London, British Library

Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek OPAC-Plus

Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France

Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek

IV.  Other Reference Works


NDLTD: Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations

ProQuest Dissertations & Theses

Center for Research Libraries: Dissertations

ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global

British Library EthOS: Access to UK Theses, not including Cambridge and Oxford. Requires free registration; many theses are available for free download. Use Library Hub Discover to search theses from Cambridge and Oxford.

University of Cambridge theses

DART-Europe E-theses Portal Covers all theses defended in France since 1985.

Trove. Australian theses.

Theses Canada

International Bibliography of Historical Sciences (Munich, 1926- ). Includes a section “Medieval Europe” and a subject index. 

Hochschulschriften zur Geschichte und Kultur des Mittelalters 1939 bis 1972/74: (Deutschland, Österreich, Schweiz), Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Hilfsmittel 1 (Munich, 1975).

Bibliographie Religion und Philosophie: Deutschsprachige Hochschulschriften und Veröffentlichungen ausserhalb des Buchhandels 1966-1980, 5 vols., comp. Irene Butt and Monika Eichler (Munich, 1992).

Census of Dissertationsin Medieval Art

Book Reviews:

IBR-Online. International Bibliography of Book Reviews of Scholarly Literature in the Humanities and Social Sciences

Book Review Index Plus (Gale)

H-Net Reviews (online reviews)

Phillip ThomsonIndex to Book Reviews in the Humanities, 31 vols. (Williamston MI, 1960-90).

Combined Retrospective Index to Book Reviews in Humanities Journals 1802-1974, ed. Evan I. Farber (Woodbridge CT, 1982-84).

See also the medieval book review journals:

Envoi: A Review Journal of Medieval Literature 

The Medieval Review .

Speculum has a particuarly extensive review section. Notices of monographs in Medioevo Latino usually refer to reviews.


Web of Science Core Collection. Includes the following Citation Indices: Arts & Humanities (1975- ), Conference Proceedings Social Sciences & Humanities (1990- ), Book Citation Social Sciences & Humanities (2005- ). Under “More Settings” select the citation indexes you want to search.

Google Scholar. Hits include a link to publications that cite the essay or book in question.

Medieval Studies Commons (Digital Commons Network). Open-access articles from scholarly journals.

V.  Introductions, Guides, and Handbooks

Handbook of Medieval Studies: Terms – Methods – Trends, ed. Albrecht Classen, 3 vols. (Berlin, 2011).  Print and online. Extensive coverage grouped under the headings “Main Topics and Debates of the Last Decades and Their Terminology and Results”; “Important Terms in Today’s Medieval Studies”; “Textual Genres in the Middle Ages”; “Key Figures in Medieval Studies from ca. 1650 to 1950.”

Handbook of Medieval Culture: Fundamental Aspects and Conditions of the European Middle Ages, 3 vols., ed. Albrecht Classen (Berlin, 2016). Print and online. Essays on various topics, from “Animals, Birds and Fish” to “Witchcraft and Superstition,” with brief bibliographies.  Table of Contents.

Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental, gen. ed. Léopold Genicot (Turnhout, 1972). Discursive bibliographical guides to medieval sources (material as well as textual) by genre. 88 volumes to date. See L. Genicot, Table of Fascicles 1-50 (Turnhout, 1992)  for valuable comprehensive indices (by types of sources; historical criticism: problems and methods; subjects of research). Volumes 2-39 have been updated in a separate volume, Mises à Jour (1985). See also the “Survey of Fundamental Reference Works in Medieval Studies,” pp. XXV-LXVI.

Jacques Berlioz et al., Identifier sources et citations, L’Atelier du médiéviste 1 (Turnhout, 1994).  Includes chapters on: La Bible latines du grec, de l’arabe et de l’hébreu; Les citations attribuées ou anonymes; Poésie et prières; Proverbes et sentences; Les citations liturgiques; Droit romain; Droit canonique; Les décisions des conciles et synodes; Vies de saints et motifs hagiographiques; Les sermons; Les exempla; Contes et motifs, croyances et “superstitions”; Encyclopédies, bestiaires et lapidaires; Images littéraires, comparaisons et lieux communs; Les sources iconographiques; L’index des index de la Patrologie latine de Jacques-Paul Migne; Addresses utiles (bibliothèques, éditeurs, libraries, CD-ROM) et répertoires de chercheurs.

Other volumes in the series L’Atelier du médiéviste: 2. Olivier Guyotjeannin, Jacques Pycke, and Benoît-Michel Tock, Diplomatique médiévale (1993). ; 3. Claude Lecouteux, L’allemand médiéval: Le moyen haut-allemand (1996) ; 4. Leo M. Carruthers, L’anglais médiéval: Introduction, textes commentés et traduits (1997). ; 5. Robert Favreau, Épigraphie médiévale (1998). ; 6. Robert Fossier, L’histoire économique et sociale du Moyen Âge occidental. Questions, sources, documents commentés (1999). ; 7. Marc Bompaire and Françoise Dumas, Numismatique médiévale: Monnaies et documents d’origine française (2000). ; 8. Odile Redon, ed., Les langues de l’Italie médiévale. Textes d’histoire et de littérature, xe-xive siècle (2002). ; 9. André Vauchez and Cecile Caby, ed., L’histoire des moines, chanoines réguliers et frères mendiants au Moyen Âge: Guide de recherche et documents (2004). ; 10. Pascale Bourgain and Marie-Clotilde Hubert, Le latin médiéval (2005).

F. A. C. Mantello and A. G. Rigg, ed., Medieval Latin: An Introduction and Bibliographical Guide (Washington, D.C., 1996).  Bibliographical essays on a wide range of topics; includes a section on “General Reference and Research Tools,” with a list of “Bibliographical Guides and Surveys,” pp. 22-31. The Table of Contents is complete on Google Books.

R. E. Kaske, in collaboration with Arthur Gross and Michael W. TwomeyMedieval Christian Literary Imagery: A Guide to Interpretation, Toronto Medieval Bibliographies 11 (Toronto, 1988).  A valuable research guide with explicit discussion of methods and procedures. Chapters on: Biblical Exegesis; The Liturgy; Hymns; Sermons; Visual Arts; Mythography; Commentaries on Major Authors (Plato, Prudentius, Augustine, Boethius, Alain de Lille, Prophetia Merlini, Dante); Miscellaneous (Mary, The Cross, Eschatology, Number, Colour). There is also an appendix on Medieval Encyclopedias by Michael Twomey.

VI.  Collections of Essays:


The best serial bibliography is the section “Congressi e Miscellanee” in Medioevo Latino. See also:

Iter: Indexed Essay Collections

Harry F. Williams, An Index of Mediaeval Studies Published in Festschriften: 1865-1946. With Special Reference to Romanic Material (Berkeley, 1951).

Gianfranco Tortorelli, Guida agli incontri medievistici in Italia (1951-1992). Convegni di Assisi, Mendola, Spoleto, Todi e congressi del C.I.S.A.M. Indice degli autori (Spoleto, 1994).

Alfred Heit and Ernst Voltmer, Bibliographie zur Geschichte des Mittelalters (Munich, 1997), pp. 83-107, give a very extensive listing of published Festschriften and collections.

Otto Leistner, Internationale Bibliographie der Festschriften von den Anfängen bis 1979, 2nd ed. (Osnabrück, 1984-86). Continued by Internationale Jahresbibliographie der Festschriften (Osnabrück, 1980- ).

Alfred Heit, Bibliographie deutschsprachiger persönlicher Festschriften, Gedenkschriften und Sammelschriften aus dem Bereich der Geschichtswissenschaft: Berichtszeitraum, 1950-1990 (Trier, 1991). 

Collections with Bibliographical Orientation:

Medieval Studies: An Introduction, ed. James M. Powell, 2nd ed. (Syracuse, 1992). Primarily oriented towards the historical sciences, with articles (many with extensive bibliographies) on Latin Palaeography; Diplomatics; Numismatics; Archaeology; Prosopography; Comupter-assisted Analysis of the Statistical Documents of Medieval Society; Medieval Chronology: Theory and Practice; Medieval English Literature; Latin Philosophies of the Middle Ages; Medieval Law; Medieval Science and Natural Philosophy; Tradition and Innovation in Medieval Art; Medieval Music in Perspective.

A Companion to the Medieval World, ed. Carol Lansing and Edward D. English (Malden MA, 2010).  27 chapters on a wide range of general topics, with Biblioraphy. By clicking on the tab “References” for a given chapter one can quickly access an up-to-date selective bibliography of the topic.

Dictionnaire raisonné de l’Occident médiévale, ed. Jacques Le Goff and Jean-Claude Schmidt (Paris, 1999).  Essays on diverse topics from “Âges de la vie” to “Violence.”

The Medieval World, ed. Peter Linehan and Janet L. Nelson (New York, 2001). Thirty-nine topical essays organized into four major categories (“Identities: Selves and Others”; “Beliefs, Social Values and Symbolic Order”; Power and Power Structures”: Elites, Organisations and Groups”).

For other encyclopedias relating to the Middle Ages, see R. C. van Caenegem, Introduction aux sources de l’histoire médiévale, rev. ed. by Luc Jocqué (Turnhout, 1997), pp. 405-9; for a more comprehensive list including works of broader scope that include coverage of medieval topics, see Mantello and Rigg, Medieval Latin, pp. 44-49.

See also the Guide to Reference for Essential General Reference and LIS Sources (Chicago, 2008),  especially “Ancient, Medieval, and Renaissance Manuscripts,” “Christianity,” and “History and Area Studies. General History. Medieval and Renaissance.”

VII.  Series

Only a representative sampling is given here. For other series see the websites listed under XIII. Publishers. For bibliographies of serial publications in medieval history see the separate bibliography on Medieval History and Historical Sources.

ARC Humanities Press (all Medieval Studies series); Past Imperfect Monographs presenting “concise critical overviews of the latest research.” 

Boydell and Brewer (all Medieval Studies series)

Brepols (all online series)

Brill (all Medieval History series)

Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought

Manchester Medieval Studies

Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies (ACMRS)

Medieval Institute Publications (all series)

Medieval Interventions (Peter Lang)

The Middle Ages Series (Penn Press)

The New Middle Ages (Palgrave).

Notre Dame Press (all series)

Routledge (all “Medieval” series); Routledge Medieval Portal

Studies and Texts (Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies). Other PIMS series are listed on the website).

Wolfenbütteler Mittelalter-Studien

VIII.  Journals


See also X. Indexes of Scholarly Literature.

Iter: Indexed Journals

Arlima: Périodiques en ligne. Hyperlinked list of 335 periodicals relevant to Medieval Studies that can be accessed in whole or in part online.

See also Andrea Barlucchi, “Riviste,” Reti Medievali.

Internationale Bibliographie der Zeitschriftenliteratur.  Comprehensive list, divided into A: Index Rerum/Subject Index, B: Index Systematicus/Keyword Index, C: Autores, and D: Periodica. For a list of keywords related to the medieval period, look up “Mittelalter” in the Index Rerum; use the on-line search engine to combine “Mittelalter” with a keyword such as “könig” (and with further delimitations, e.g., “Frankreich”).

For a list of periodicals organized by topic and region, see Crosby et al., Medieval Studies, pp. 1027-57, and Alfred Heit and Ernst Voltmer, Bibliographie zur Geschichte des Mittelalters (Munich, 1997), pp. 64-79. See also the list of indexed periodicals in the front of any recent volume of Medioevo Latino. For literary and linguistic periodicals consult the MLA Directory of Periodicals. Many Medieval Studies journals can be accessed via the publishers’ databases listed below.

Comprehensive Medieval Studies Journals:

Cahiers de civilisation médiévale (1958- ). Volumes from 1958 to 2007 are available online via Persée.

Cahiers de Recherches Médiévales et Humanistes / Journal of Medieval and Humanistic Studies (1996- ).

Comitatus: A Journal of Medieval and Renaissance StudiesVolumes from 1970 through 2001 are available online via California Digital Library; volumes from 2003 are available via Project MUSE.

Digital Philology: A Journal of Medieval Cultures (2012- ).

Essays in Medieval Studies. Volumes from 2001 available through Project MUSE.

Fragments: Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Study of Ancient and Medieval Pasts (2011- ).

Hortulus: The Online Graduate Journal of Medieval Studies (2005- ).

Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies. Volumes from 2000 available on the journal home page. Volumes from 1997 available via Project MUSE.

Journal of Medieval Worlds (2019- ).

Journal of Transcultural Medieval Studies (2014- ).

Marginalia (2005- ).

Mediaevalia (1975- ). Volumes from 2011 available via Project MUSE.

The Mediaeval Journal (2011- ).

Mediaeval Studies (1939- ).

Medieval Encounters: Jewish, Christian and Muslim Culture in Confluence and Dialogue (1995- ).

Medieval Forum (2002- ).

The Medieval Globe (2014- ).

Medievalia et Humanistica (1943- ).

Medieval Worlds (2015- ).

Nottingham Medieval Studies (1957- ).


Reading Medieval Studies (1975- ).

Speculum, (1926- ). The print index to volumes 1-49 (1926-74) is in some ways more convenient to browse for subjects. 

Studi Medievali (1904- ). Older issues available on

Traditio (1943- ).

Viator (1971- ).

IX.  Websites


Bloomsbury Medieval Studies. “[A] a new interdisciplinary digital resource with a global perspective. It will bring together high-quality secondary content with visual primary sources, a brand new reference work and pedagogical resources into one cross-searchable platform, to support students and scholars across this rich field of study.”

Digital Medievalist. “[A]n international web-based community for medievalists working with digital media.” “ offers readers the chance to learn and experience what is new in history by providing comprehensive coverage of news, books, articles, games, movies, pop culture and more.” Sponsors a Medieval Magazine (by subscription).

Ménestrel. Médiévistes sur le net: sources, travaux et références en ligne. Divided into four major categories: “Lieux et acteurs” (Medieval Studies in nations and regions around the world); “Thèmes et disciplines” (with thirty-seven topical categories); “Sources et ressources” (Archives; Bibliographie; Bibliothèques numériques et virtuelles; Catalogues de manuscrits; Corpus de textes; Corpus d’images; Instruments de travail; Revues; Thèses); and Editions Ménestrel (Archives; Cartographier le monde médiéval; De l’usage de… [various topical essays]). The site is partially translated into English.

The ORB: On-line Reference Book for Medieval Studies. Includes an Encyclopedia and Reference Shelf among other resources.

Perspecuitas: Internet-Periodicum für mediävistische Sprach-, Literatur- und Kulturwissenschaft

Reti medievali. Iniziative on line per gli studi medievistici. Includes a Repertory, “a subject guide to the [electronic] resources available for medieval studies” and various original essays and bibliographies.

Spolia: Journal of Middle Ages (English homepage of Italian site). Includes essays and other specialized materials on Archaeology, Art, Byzantine Philology, Codicology, Diplomatics, History, Information Technology, Italian Literature, Medieval Philology, Music, Onomastics, Paleography, Philosophy, and Romance Literatures.


Medieval Digital Resources: A Curated Guide and Database (Medieval Academy of America). “MDR is a curated database of peer-reviewed digital materials for the study of the Middle Ages. Users can browse an alphabetical list or search using controlled-vocabulary subject tags to find vetted online resources of many types, including: imagebanks; bibliographies and reference works; pedagogical tools; editions and translations; music and other multimedia collections; interpretative websites; and new works of digital scholarship. Please note that MDR does not include resources that are paywalled or require password access, although some resources may have restrictive use-licenses.” Das altgermanistische Internetportal. Coverage is not strictly limited to medieval Germanic studies. See the Sitemap for topics covered.

MESA: Medieval Electronic Scholarly Alliance. “Using the Collex interface, MESA aggregates the best scholarly resources in medieval studies and make them fully searchable and interoperable. This interface also provides a collection and authoring space in which researchers can create and publish their own work.” Currently searches JSTOR journals and various digital collections including libraries, corpora, and thematic projects. Searches can be delimited by access (free or full text only), format (e.g., manuscript), discipline, and genre. Search options include title, role, language, year, subject, and coverage.

NetSERF. The Internet Connection for Medieval Resources. Latest revision to a “top ten site” was 2000.

The Labyrinth. Dating back to the early 1990s, The Labyrinth was the first internet gateway for Medieval Studies, but never developed much beyond its pilot phase. Currently it provides a very limited sampling of online resources under some forty general headings.

Archivum Medii Aevi Digitale. Mediävistisches Fachrepositorium und Wissenschaftsblog“ (AMAD). To be launched in October 2020.


CARMEN: The Worldwide Medieval Network

The Medieval Academy of America

FIDEM: Fédération Internationale des Instituts d’Études Médiévales

Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies

For fuller listings see:

Medieval Centers and Regional Assocations (CARA)

Medievalists on the Map (Ménestrel)


Only a sampling of major presses with extensive Medieval Studies publications are listed here.


Amsterdam University Press

ArcHumanities Press

Boydell & Brewer

Brepols Online

Brill Online Reference Works

Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Core

De Gruyter

Fondazione Centro Italiano di Studi sull’Alto Medioevo

Liverpool University Press

Medieval Institute Publications

Notre Dame Press

Oxford University Press, Oxford Scholarship Online


Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies

Routledge Medieval Portal

SISMEL — Edizioni del Galluzzo

University of Toronto Press

Wiley Online Library

York Medieval Press


Medievalist Weblogs (sorted alphabetically)

Digital Medievalist

In the Middle

Medieval Studies Research Blog

Mittelalter: Interdisziplinäre Forschung und Rezeptionsgeschichte. Includes a “Medieval blogroll” with an alphabetical linked list of major scholarly blogs focused on the Middle Ages.

Medieval and Renaissance Blogs

X.  Search Engines; Databases and Indices of Scholarly Literature

Search Engines: (Microsoft)

Google (and Google Books and Google Scholar). In basic search mode use double quotation marks for exact match. There is also an Advanced Search mode. See Google search tips (MIT).

GRAFT: Global Repository Access Full-Text

Full-Text Databases and Indices of Scholarly Literature:

JSTOR. Full-text digital library of academic journals and books.

Project MUSE. Full-text digital library of academic journals and books in the humanities and social sciences.

DigiZeitschriften: Das Deutsche Digitale Zeitschriftenarchiv. Covers German-language academic journals; can be searched and browed by subject collection.

First Search. Multiple OCLC databases, including Article First, ECO (journals), Ebooks, PapersFirst, Proceedings, WorldCat, WorldCatDissertations, OAIster (digital resources)

EBSCO Databases. Multiple EBSCO databases, including Academic Search Complete, Art Index Retrospective, Art Source, ATLA Catholic Periodical and Literature Index, ATLA Religion Database, eBook Collection, Frick Art Reference, Historical Abstracts, Humanities & Social Science Index Retrospective 1907-1984, Index Islamicus, Index to Jewish Periodicals, Library & Information Science Source, Library & Information Science Retrospective 1905-1983; as of September 2016 includes Humanities Source Ultimate database, MLA Bibliography, New Testament Abstracts, Old Testatment Abstracts, RILM Abstracts of Music Literature, RIPM Retrospective Index to Music Periodicals.

Academic OneFile (Gale)  Database of magazines, academic journals, books, newspapers, and multimedia; Basic and Advanced search modes.

Periodicals Index Online. Multidisciplinary index to journals in the arts, humanities, and the social sciences.

Open-Access Indices, Aggregators, and Libraries:

BASE: Bielefeld Academic Search Engine. Database of open-access web resources. Can be browsed by Dewey Decimal categories.

CORE. Open-access research paper aggregator.

Directory of Open Access Books.

Directory of Open Access Journals. Can be searched by topic, including “Medieval.” Subject tree includes “Medieval History.”

HAL: Archives ouvertes

isidore. Your search assistant in Humanities and Social Sciences. Search by Collections, Documents, or Subjects.


OAPEN: Open Access Publishing in European Networks

Persée. Provides open access to “complete collections of scholarly publications (journals, books, conference proceedings, serial publications, primary sources, etc.) and to a range of research and exploitation tools” primarily in the humanities and social sciences.


ACLS Humanities E-Book

eScholarship (University of California)

e-periodica. Swiss Periodicals Online

XI.  Digital Libraries Includes a collection relating to Medieval Studies curated by ARLIMA. Note that can be searched by keyword or phrase, but in the search field one must select the box “search text contents” (the default is “search metadata”). Allows many copyrighted materials to be checked out for limited periods.

Google Books

Hathi Trust. Extensive, well curated, and searchable collection, but accessible only to users in North America.

Harvard Digital Collections

Gallica. Extensive digital collections of books, manuscripts, images and more from the Bibliothèque nationale de France and a large number of partner libraries. Searches can be delimited by form of resource (books; manuscripts; maps; images; press; sounds; scores; objects; videos) and Advanced Search allows many further limitations, including by theme.

The Munich DigitiZation Center. Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich.

Oxford Text Archive (date range 0-1499)

XII. Translations of Medieval Texts in English and Other Modern Languages


Clarissa P. Farrar and Austin P. Evans, Bibliography of English Translations from Medieval Sources, Records of Civilization: Sources and Studies 39 (New York, 1946).

Mary Anne Heyward Ferguson, Bibliography of Translations from Medieval Sources, 1943-1967, Records of Civilization Sources and Studies 88 (New York, 1974).

Bibliography of Primary Sources in English Translation for the Period c. 250-c. 1000 (in progress)

George B. Parks, Ruth Z. Temple, and Richard C. Lewanski, ed., The Literatures of the World in English Translation: A Bibliography, 3 vols. (New York, 1967- ). I: The Greek and Latin Literatures (1968). II: The Slavic Literatures (1967) III: The Romance Literatures, 2 vols. (1970). Projected volumes: IV: The Celtic, Germanic, and Other Literatures of Europe. V: The Literatures of Asia and Africa

Index translationum: International Bibliography of Translations, 39 vols. to date (Paris, 1948- ).  See the Cumulative Index to English Translations: 1948-1968, 2 vols. (Boston, 1973- ).   In the online database, select the original and target languages (e.g., Latin and English) and search by author or title words, or specific publication information.

Translation, by James W. Marchand (WEMSK 40).

For translations into Modern German:

Norbert Ohler, Bibliographie ins Neuhochdeutsche übersetzter mittelalterlicher Quellen. Unter Berücksichtigung von Schriften des nachbiblischen Judentums, des frühen Christentums und des Neuplatonismus (Wiesbaden, 1991). 


Translated Texts for Historians (Liverpool Univ. Press).

Dallas Medieval Texts and Translations (Univ. of Dallas).

Medieval Texts and Translations (Boydell and Brewer).

Medieval Sources in Translation (Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, Toronto).

Byzantine sources:

Modern Language Translations of Byzantine Sources

Emily Albu Hanawalt, An Annotated Bibliography of Byzantine Sources in English Translation (Brookline, MA, 1988).

Byzantine Sources in Translation, by Paul Halsall.

Wolfgang Schule, Bibliographie der Übersetzungen griechisch-byzantinischer Quellen, Glossar zur frühmittelalterlichen Geschichte im östlichen Europa, Beiheft 1 (Wiesbaden, 1982). Lists translations in Latin, English and in other modern European Languages.

Translations of Byzantine Saints’ Lives Listed Alphabetically (Dumbarton Oaks).

Bruce Macbain, “An Annotated Bibliography of Sources for Late Antiquity in English Translation,” Byzantine Studies/Études Byzantines 10/1 (1983), 88-109 and 10/2 (1983), 223-47.

For translations of patristic texts, see the separate bibliography on The Bible and its Interpretation (temporarily unavailable while being updated).

Charles D. Wright:
Last updated 8/19; all links functioning as of 8/7/19